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nursing sdg

Names of meds 1.Sulfonamides: sulfa- 2.Penicillins: -cillin 3.Cephalosporins: cef- 4.Tetracyclines: -cycline 5.Macrolides: -mycin 6.Fluroquinolones: -floxacin 7.Aminoglycosides: -cin 8.Anti-virals: -vir 9.Anti-fungal: -zole
What is the action of sulfonamides? =Bacteriostatic(Capable of inhibiting the growth or reproduction of bacteria). "inhibits" folic acid-> no cell wall formation.
What are the adverse reactions of sulfanomides? hematologic changes: 1.thrombocytopenia( bleeding) 2.aplastic anemia( bone marrow deficit) 3.leukopenia ( decrease WBC) 4.Steven-Johnson Syndrome 5.Crystalluria (increase fluids) 6.Yellow-orange urine 7.Photosensitivity/skin necrosis(sunscreen).
What are the contraindications/interactions for Sulfonamides? 1. do not use if kidney failure 2.sulfo. will increase anticoagulant action. 3.sulfo. + methotrexate=increase bone marrow suppression 3. take sulfo. on empty stomach. 4. sulfasalazine + food is ok
Sulfonamides on burns. Mafenide or silver sulfadiazine for burns. clean are first then place med+dressing s/e: stinging/burning sensation temporary. Watch for skin necrosis.
Penicillin action bactericidal, prophylaxis.
Penicillin adverse reactions. AR: anaphylaxis, cross sensitivity ( between penicillin and cephalosporin; when you're allergic to one, you're allergic to both), superinfections: bacterial,fungal, GI.
Penicillin adverse reactions(hematologic changes) AR hematologic changes: thrombocytopenia(bleeding), aplastic anemia( bone marrow deficit), leukopenia ( decrease WBC), Steven-Johnson Syndrome.
Penicillin drug resistance Bacteria has natural resistance or has acquired resistance (example: MRSA.
"secondary"/"superinfection" 1. pseudomembranous colitis( blood& mucous/bacterial). -Clostridium difficile : pseudomembranous colitis(diarrhea as a result). 2. Vaginal or anal pain or itching. 3. stomatitis TX: vicous lidocaine ( anesthetic).
Penicillin interactions 1. PCN= BCP= decrease effectiveness of BCP. 2.PCN+tetracycline=decrease effectiveness of tetracycline. 3. PCN+ anticoagulant=increase bleeding risk.
penicillins implementation. 1.Take PCN on empty stomach. 2.Check for fungal & bacterial superinfections.( to decrease risk of fungal & bacterial superinfections, add yogurt , buttermilk & acidophilus in the diet). 3.Give antipyretics , antifungals. 4.Use soft bristled toothbrush.
signs & symptoms of anaphylactic shock. 1. loss of consciousness. 2. difficulty breathing d/t airway constriction. 3. lowered blood pressure.
cephalosporins action & uses. action=bactericidal. uses: UTI, ear infections. divided into 1st, 2nd, 3rd, & 4th generation drugs.
cephalosporins adverse reactions AR: N/V, diarrhea, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity.
cephalosporins interactions 1.cephalosporins+ aminoglycoside= nephrotoxicity 2. cephalosporin+alcohol= Disulfiram-like reaction ( makes you nauseated). 3.cephalosporin+anticoagulant= increase bleeding risk. C+A=Nephrotoxic C+Al= Disulfirum-like Rx. C+ Anti = increase bleeding
cephalosporins implementations. 1.Take cephalosporin on empty stomach. Food ok if upset stomach. 2. Watch for superinfection (fungal & bacterial) 3. Inspect for phlebitis & thrombophlebitis. -fully reconstitute powder . - shake oral supensions & keep refridgerated.
What is disulfiram ? Used to produce aversion to alcohol in the treatment of alcoholism because extremely uncomfortable symptoms occur when its administration is followed by ingestion of alcohol.
What is superinfection? Infectious disease An infection that follows a prior infection, which occurs when native regional flora are substantially reduced, often by antibiotics, allowing invasion by opportunistic organisms, as in pseudomembranous colitis or esophageal candidiasis
Tetracyclines action. 1.broad spectrum bacteriostatic. 2.used when cannot use PCN.
Tetracycline adverse reactions. 1. superinfections ( fungal& bacterial).
Tetracycline interactions. 1.TCN+ digoxin level= increase Digoxin level. 2.TCN + oral anti-coagulant= increase bleeding risk. 3.Take TCN on empty stomach. 4.TCN+BCP=decrease effectiveness of BCP. 5. no milk(calcium), no antacids, no laxatives b/c these decreases TCN effectivene
Tetracycline adverse reactions. 1.N/V, diarrhea. 2.epigastric distress. 3. stomatitis ( Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth). 4.photosensitivity 5.yellow teeth stains.
Tetracycline contraindications. -don't give Tetracycline to children younger than 9 years old. -cautious use in: liver & renal impairment.
Macrolide(Erythromycin) 1. take E-mycin with food. 2. E-mycin+ Theophyliline= increase theophylline level.
Lincosamide ( Clindamycin) 1.Give clindamycin with food or a full glass of water. 2.Do not give lincosamides to someone with a viral infection.
Fluroquinolones ( ciprofloxacin) & Aminoglycosides (gentamycin) uses. - used for resistant bacteria such as pneumonia, UTI, etc. - this is a broad-spectrum bactericidal.
Fluroquinolones ( ciprofloxacin) & Aminoglycosides (gentamycin) adverse reactions 1.N/V , diarrhea. 2. epigastric distress. 3.stomatitis 4. photosentivity
Aminoglycosides adverse reactions 1. nephrotoxicity (hematuria;check BUN) 2. ototoxicity(tinnitus, vertigo) 3. neurotoxicity ( numbness, pain)
Aminoglycosides interactions. 1. Aminoglycosides + cephalosporins=increase nephrotoxicity. 2.Aminoglycosides + loop diuretics= increase ototoxicity. 3. Aminoglycosides + Pavulon= increase neuromuscular blockade.
Fluroquinolones & Aminoglycoside implementation. 1. PCN + Aminoglycoside = cancels each other. 2. Fluroquinolones + NSAIDs= risk of seizures. 3.don't open enteric coated tablets/capsules. 4.drink lots of water. 5. photosensitivity 6.diarrhea
antiviral uses/info/interactions. uses:CMV in transplant pts., HSV1&2,herpes zoster,HIV, influenza,Hepatitis B&C info:-decrease virus'ability to reproduce in a cell. -toxic to human cells. -these drugs do not cure! interaction: anti viral+theophylline= increase theophylline blood leve
Vancomycin action/uses/complications. action: bacteriostatic & bactericidal ( depending on dosage). used for: health/community-acquired pneumonias, skin infections, clostridium difficle ( pseudomembraneous colitis) complications: vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE).
Vancomycin interaction/adverse reactions. interaction:linezolid+ chocolate, coffee(tyramine)= HTN adverse reactions: N/V, diarrhea,photosensitivity, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, chills(blankets),stomatitis.
anti-fungal: amphotericin B 1.protect IV solution from exposure to light. 2.admin drug immediately after drug is reconstituted. 3. renal damage (most serious AR), so serum creatinine and BUN levels are checked frequently.
amphotericin B adverse reactions/interactions. 1.renal damage (most serious AR), so serum creatinine and BUN levels are checked frequently. 2.bone marrow depression. 3.chills(blanket) interaction amphotericin B: increase risk of Digoxin toxicity.
Treating iron deficiency anemia: actions & uses 1.iron preparations( act by elevating serum iron [] , which replenishes Hg & depleted iron stores). 2.vitamin C : increases absorption of iron. 3.milk & tetracycline decrease absorption of iron. 4.iron may stain skin;mix in water/juice and sip with str
parenteral iron -used when pt. can't take oral drugs or when GI intolerance to oral iron admin. - treats iron deficiency anemia. -watch for phlebitis
iron adverse reactions/contraindications AR: GI reactions( GI irritations, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, dark stools;generalized system reactions). iron supplements: contraindicated in pts. with known hypersensitivity to drug, or any component of the drug.
iron contrainications/precautions iron compounds: contraindicated in pts with hemochromatosis(A hereditary disorder in which iron salts are deposited in the tissues.) or hemolytic anemia. used cautiously : in pts. with hypersensitivity to aspirin.
iron interactions 1.antibiotics:decrease GI absorption or the antibiotic;TCN decreases iron absorption). 2.levothyroxine:decrease absorption of levothyroxine.
iron interactions (con't) 3.levodopa, methyldopa:decreased effect of Parkinson's medication. 4.ascorbic acid(vitamin C):increased absorption of iron.
iron interactions(con't) 5.hematochromatosis: a disorder that interferes with iron metabolism which resultes in too much iron in the body. The iron builds up in the liver and leads to hepatomagaly.
drugs for anemia assoc. with chronic illness/adverse reactions for both. 1. Epoetin alfa ( Epogen, Procrit) 2. Darbepoetin alfa AR: 1. HTN, headache, N/V diarrhea, rashes, fatigue, arthralgia (Pain in a joint), skin reaction @ injection site. 2. polycythemia : increase in RBC count.
Epoeitn alfa contraindicaitons/precautions 1.epoeitn alfa: contraindicated in pts. /w uncontrolled HTN, those needing emergency transfusion, those /w hypersensitivity to human albumin. Used with caution in pts. with HTN; heart disease; CHF; history of seizures.
Darbepoeitin alfa contraindications contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled HTN, those allergic to drug.
drugs used in Treating folic acid deficiency anemia: actions&uses 1.follic acid: used in treating megaloblastic anemia; for woemen of childbearing age to decrease incidence of neural tube defects( ex. anencephaly, meningocele).
drugs used in Treating folic acid deficiency anemia: actions&uses 2. leucovorin: used to diminish hematologic effects or methotrexate (used in treating certain types of cancer) . -leucovorin"rescues" normal cells from being destroyed by methotrexate/called "folinic acid rescue".
folic acid contraindications/precautions/interactions 1.folic acid leucovorin: contraindicated for Tx. pernicious anemia, other anemias in which vitamin B12 is deficient. 2. pregnant wmeon with folate dificiency are @ increased risk for complications of pregnancy, fetal abnormalities.
folic acid contraindications/precautions/interactions (con't) 3. signs of folate deficiency: occurs when sulfasalazine admin. concurrently. 4. increase in seizure activity: occurs when folic acid is admin. with hydantoins.
Why Vitamin B12 is essential? -Vitamin B12 is essential to growth, cell reproduction, manufacture of myelin, & blood cell production
drugs used in Tx Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia : action/uses/adverse reactions Vitamin B 12: treat pts. with a viram B12 deficiency; also used to perform the Schilling test. AR: mild diarrhea, itching; increase in RBCs production, acne, peripheral vascular thrombosis; CHF, pulmonary edema.
Vitamin B12 deficiency contraindication/precautions/interactions. contraindicated: allergic cyanocobalamin. admin: cautiously during pregnancy, in pts with pulmonary disease, anemia. alcohol, neomycin, colchine=decrease the absorption of oral vitamin B12.
Created by: 1690070431