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Science finals vocab

vocabulary words

astronomy the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space
axis imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles
rotation the spinning of earth on its axis
revolution the movement of one object around another
orbit path earth follows as it revolves around the sun
calendar a system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year
solstice when the sun is farthest north or south of the equator
equinox means "equal night". when day and night are each about 12 hours long everywhere on earth
force a push or pull
gravity a force that attracts all objects toward each other
law of universal gravitation law that states that every object on the universe attracts every other object
mass the amount of matter in an object
weight the force of gravity on an object
inertia the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Newton's first law of motion says that an object in rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
phases the different shapes of the moon you see from earth
eclipse when an object in space comes between the sun and a third object, it casts a shadow on that object
solar eclipse occurs when a new moon blocks your view of the sun
umbra the very darkest part of the moons shadow
penumbra the larger less dark part of the shadow
lunar eclipse occurs at a full moon when earth is directly between the moon and the sun
spring tide tide with the greatest distance between consecutive low and high tides
neap tide tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides
new moon when the sunlit side faces away from earth
waxing cresent the portion of the moon you can see is wacing or growing, into a cresent shape. (right side)
first quarter you can see half of the sunlit side of the moon. (the right side)
waxing gibbous the moon continues to wax. the visible shape of the moon is called gibbous
full moon the entire sunlit side faces earth
waning gibbous the portion of the moon you can see wanes, or shrinks.
third quarter you can see half of the moons lighted side (the left side)
waning cresent you see a cresent once again. (left side)
low tides occur between the two higher tides.
high tides the moons gravity causes high tide on the sside closest to the moon
29.5 days about how long it takes a new moon to occur again after the last new moon
27.3 days about how long it takes the moon to revolve once around the earth
telescope a device built to observe distant objects by making them appear closer
maria dark flat areas on the moons surface
craters large round pits
meteoroids chunks of rock or dust from space
rocket a device that expels gas in one direction to move in the opposite direction
thrust the reaction force that propels a rocket forward
velocity the speed in a given direction
orbital velocity the velocity a rocket must achieve to establish an orbit around earth
escape velocity the velocity a rocket must reach to flu beyond a planets gravitational pull
satellite an object that revolves around another object in space
sputnik I launched by the soviets to begin the space race
Laika the first dog in space
Created by: raanderson