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Allied Health

Respiratory System

What is the nasal spetum? Divides nasal cavities into R and L sides
What are turbinates? Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity-they increasw surface are for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.
What is the cilia? The hairs in your nose; trap larger dirt particles
What are sinuses? Cavities in the skull. ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous memnrane to warm and moisten the air. Sinuses give resonance to the voice
What is the pharynx? The throat, common passageway for air and food, 5" long, when food is swallowed, the EPIGLOTTIS closes over the opening to the larynx, preventing food from entering the lungs
What is the larynx? Voice box, triangular chamber below pharynx, within the larynx are vocal cords (GLOTTIS), adams apple.
What is the trachea? Windpipe, 4.5 in. long, walls are alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage-to keep trachea open , lined with ciliated mucous membrane, coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous
What are the bornchi and bronchioles? Lower end of trachea divided into R and L brinchus, as they enter lungs, subdivide into bronchial tubes and bronchioles
What are bronchi? Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage
What are bronchial tubes? Cartilaginous plates (instead of C-shaped rings)
Whar are bronchioles? Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epitheliuim, at the end, elveolar duct and cluster of alveoli
What is the alveoli? Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissues, inner surfaces covered with SURFACTANT- to kepp alveoli from collapsing, each alveolus surrounded by capillaries, O2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries
What are the lungs? Fill thoractic cavity, upper part=apex, lower part=base, base fits snugly over diaphragm, lung tissue porous and spongy-it floats, R lung= larger and shorter(displaced by the liver) and has 3 lobrd, L lung smaller(displaced by the heart) and has 2 lobes
What is the pleura? Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs, double-walled sac, space is pleural cavity- filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction
What are the functions of the respiratory system? External respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration, production of sound (vocal cords)
What is pulmonary ventilation? Breathing
What is inspiration? Intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.
What is expiration? Opposite action takes place, exhalation is a passive process
What is coughing? Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air- to clear lower respiratory tract
What are hiccups? Spasm of the diaphrahm spasmotic closure of the glottis- diaphragm or phrenic nerve
What is sneezig? Air foreced through nose to clear the respiratory tract
What is yawning? Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxyegn within the blood
What is breathing controlled by? Neutal and chemical factors
What are neural factors? Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA, PHRENIC NERVE-stimulates the diaphragm
What are chemical factors? Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood(respiratory center in the brain) , chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood 02
What is a common cold? Contagious viral respiratory infection, indrieect causes: chilling, fatigue, lack of proper food, etc. Rx-stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition, also called an upper respiratory infection (URI), handwashing- best preventative
What is laryngitis? Inflammation of larynx or voice box, often secondary to other respiratory infections, symptoms: sore throat, hoarseness or loss of voice, dysphagia(difficulty swallowing)
What is sinusitis? Infection of mucous membrane that lines sinus cavities, caused by bacteria or virus, symptoms: heachache or pressurem thick nasal discharge, loss of voice resonance, Rx: symptomatic, surgery for chronic sinusitis,
What is pharyngisits? Red, inflammed throat
What is bronchitis? Inflammation of the mucous memrbae of the trachea and brinchial tubes, producing excessive mucous, may be acute or chronic, acute bronchitis characterized by cough fever, substernal pain and RALES(raspy sound)
What is chronic bronchitis? Middle or age, cigarette smoking most common cause
What is influenza (flu)? Viral infection causing inflammation of the mucous membrane, fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustion, complications-pneumonia, neuritis, otitis media, and pleurisy, Rx-treat with symptoms
What is pneumonia? Infection of the lung, caused by bacteria or virus, alveoli fil with exdudates (thick fluid), symptoms-chest pain, fever, chills, dyspena, Rx- O2 and antibiotics
What is tuberculosis? Infectious bacterial lung disease, tubercles (lesions) form in the lungs, symptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, night sweats, diagnosis- TB skin test, if the skin test is postive- follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sample,
What is asthma? Inflammatory aorway obstruction , caused by alleren or psychological stress, 5% of americans have astham, symptoms: diffculty exhaling, dyspena, wheezing, tightness in chest, Rx:anti-inflammatory drugs, inchaled brinchodilator
What is emphysema? Alveoli become over- dilated, lose their elasticitym cant rebound, may eventually ruptue, air becomes trapped, cant exhale-forecd exhalation required, reduced exchange of O2 and CO2, dyspna increased as disease pogress,
What is the normal number of breaths and adult takes each minute at rest> 14-20
What is the name of the cartilage flap that covers the larynx when you swallow? Epiglottis
What covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage? The pleura
The respiratory system ends in millions of tiny, thin-walled sacs called? Alveoli
Structures that produce mucous for the respiratory tract and are locared in the skull are: Sinuses
What is the pathway of air into the lungs? Larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli
The walls of the trachea are made more rigid by the presence of: Rings of cartilage
Each lung is divided into two or three parts called: lOBES
When the trachea divides to enter both lungs, the tubes that are fomred are called? Bronchi
The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is: Cigarette smoking
The part of respiration that involvess taking air into the lungs is called: Inspiration
Created by: Netta16