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Science Final LCA

Science Final

What is homeostasis? The internal balance an organism must maintain
What coordinates the body's response to its environment? The Nervous System
What is a neuron? Our nerve cells
What is an impulse? involves the exchange of substances thru the cell membrane of a neuron
What are neurotransmitters?
What is the function of the cerebrum? The largest portion of your brain; divided into 2 halves called hemispheres
What is the function of the spinal cord? 16-18 in long; protected by bony vertebrae; connects the peripheral nerve network with the brain
What is the function of the cerebellum? Controls bodily movements without you knowing it; maintains posture and balance; coordination
What is the function of the medulla? autonomic center - breathing, heart rate, coughing, sneezing and swallowing
What is the function of the skeletal system? Body framework for protection for vital organs and muscle attachment
What does the skull do? protects the brain
What is red marrow? marrow is tissue that produces blood cells
What is periosteum? covers the bones surface; tough, white, and provides for muscle attachment
Cartilage a bungee soft tissue; more flexible than bone; provided cushion between bones
ball and socket joint provide free movement within a limited area ex. shoulder and hip
Hinge joints bend in only one direction ex. elbow and knee
What does the muscular system do? Move the bones at the joints by pulling the bone never pushing; generates body heat; located one joint above their action
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue? skeletal, cardiac and smooth
What does skeletal muscle tissue do? voluntary; contract the bands that move over each other by shortening the belly of the muscle
What does smooth muscle tissue do? involuntary; contract to move organs and fluids thru tubes ex. heart, stomach, pupil of eye, intestines
What does cardiac muscle tissue do? involuntary; pumps blood thru the blood vessels to the body and back to the heart
How does a contraction happen? the bending and extending of a muscle
What is a ligaments function? a band of connective tissue that holds the bones of a joint in place
What is a tendons function? the connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Location of cardiac tissue heart
Location of smooth tissue heart, intestines, stomach
What is the integumentary system? All things skin related
Name the skin layers from top to bottom. epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
Functions of the skin keeps harmful chemicals and disease causing organisms out of your body; helps prevent injury; shields and protects the inside of our body
Function of melanin pigment causing much of the skin color
Where is melanin located? In the epidermis
What is the function of the circulatory system? helps maintain homeostasis by circulating nutrients, gases - oxygen and carbon dioxide, hormones and antibodies; carries waste materials to the kidneys
What are the parts of the circulatory system heart, arteries, veins and capillaries
What is a pacemaker? set the pace of the heart/located in the right atrium
What is the correct direction of blood through the heart? The atria (right heart) receives blood from the body and lungs. The ventricles (left heart) pumps the blood to the lungs in the body.
What do arteries do? always carries blood away from the heart; withstands a higher pressure
What do veins do? carries blood towards the heart; have valves to insure a one direction flow
What do capillaries do? one cell thick, this allows diffusion of materials thru the wall into the tissues; merge to form the veins
What are the functions of valves? 4 valves insure that bloods flows in one direction thru the heart i.e. tricuspid, bicuspid, aortic, pulmonary
What is the composition of blood? 55% plasma, 45% solid components - erythrocytes Red blood cells, Leucocytes White blood cells, Platelets - clotting factors
What is the composition of plasma? 90% water and 10% dissolved materials that are dissolved foods, wastes, minerals, hormones, electrolytes, and clotting factors
The clotting process in order... When blood vessels r broken, platelets 1st stick together forming a temporary plug to stop blood loss, some platelets burst&release a substance that triggers a series of reactions that produce long fibers in the blood, a blood clot forms&serves as a plug
What is hemoglobin and where can you find it? iron containing pigment that makes erythrocytes appear red/ can be found in bone marrow
What are the vessels of the heart? 4 chambers (2 atria and 2 ventricles) & 4 valves
What are the 4 valves of the heart and their functions? tricuspid, bicuspid, aortic, pulmonary - functions are to insure that bloods flow in one direction thru the heart
Where can you find the oxygen rich blood? the left side
Where can you find the deoxygenated blood? the right side
What does the respiratory system do? exchange carbon dioxide for a fresh supply of oxygen for the blood
What does the diaphragm do and where is it located? changes the pressure in the lungs creating inhalation and exhalation; located below the lungs
What is the process of gas exchange in the alveoli? Diffusion determines the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide; capillaries surround each alveolus
What is the function of the oxygen we inhale? aerobic cellular respiration
What is the trachea? wind pipe
What is the epiglottis and where is it located? closes trachea when food is swallowed; located at the back of the throat
What is a bronchi and where is it located? small air passage tubes that helps to carry oxygen; located in the chest above the heart near the trachea
What is the digestive system? functions are intake of food, digestion of food and absorption of nutrients
What does the stomach do? muscular organ that churns partially digested food mixing it with hydrochloric acid and enzymes; protein digestion starts here; located below the esophogus
What does the pancreas do? produces pancreatic juice; contains digestive enzymes, insulin for sugar metabolism. It communicates with liver to adjust blood glucose levels. Located below the stomach.
What does the liver do? produces bile for lipid (fat) digestion; emulsifies fat into smaller molecules. Located above the stomach.
Mechanical vs chemical digestion Mechanical involved the grinding and mixing w/ enzymes/ Chemical involves chemically breaking down the food into usable molecules
Chyme The semi-liquid mixture of digestive juices and partly digested food in the stomach and small intestine
What is the direction of flow through the alimentary canal in order? mouth, pharynx, esophogus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus
What is the function of the small intestine? produces sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the acids from the stomach
What is the function of the large intestine? removes undigested food and absorbs water; material left is feces
What is the villi and where is it located finger like; provides large surface area for absorbing digested food; located in the small intestine
Where is the esophagus located? long tube before the stomach
Where is the gall bladder located? Above stomach attached to the liver
What is the excretory system? to remove wastes from the blood and to eliminate them from body
Where does filtration occur? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and the urethra
What does the kidneys do? filters the waste from the blood; removes all liquids from blood and only returns what is necessary for homeostasis
Created by: bgpalmers