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ND 8th Science Final

Vocab and stuff for the ND 8th Grade Science Final

the study of the ocean (geology, marine biology, meteorology, chemistry, botany) oceanography
term used to refer to all oceans as a single body of water world ocean
4 major oceans Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
largest and deepest ocean, holds 1/2 of all ocean water Pacific
2nd largest ocean overall in size Atlantic
3rd largest ocean in size, but deeper than Atlantic Indian
1/20 the size of the Pacific, parts frozen all year long Arctic
a smaller subdivision of ocean sea
underwater areas that border the continents continental margin
the gentle sloping part of the margins, .1 m dropoff for every 100 m, oil and natural gas, a lot of sea life and plants continental shelf
dramatic dropoff of the margin 70 m/1 km continental slope
caused by sediments that slide down slope turbidity current
V shaped valleys cut into slope submarine canyon
pile of sediments at the base of the slope continental rise
deep depression that holds all the planet's ocean water ocean basin
flat part of the ocean floor abyssal plain
underwater volcanoes seamounts
manganese, iron, nickel, copper Mn nodules
rock like structures in warm, shallow, ocean water, formed from collection of skeletons of coral animal coral reef
3 types of coral reefs fringing, barrier, atoll
most common coral reef, formed around an island or attached to the coast (Florida Keys) fringing
separated from main land by body of water (Great Barrier Reef) barrier
ring shaped reef that forms on the crater of a volcano atoll
most caused by wind waves
a wave that breaks at the shore breakers
waves break in deep water due to strong winds white caps
manmade/naturally occurring deposit of sand that runs parallel to the shore, forms when waves steal sand off beach (naturally) sandbar
the current that moves close to the shoreline longshore current
rock wall that is built to trap sand from the longshore current jetties
formed when a break occurs in the sandbar creating water channeling back to ocean rip current
partially blocking of bay mouth from sand buildup spit
complete blocking of bay mouth sealing it off from ocean baymouth bar
islands get connected by sand deposits tombolos
the boundary between the land and sea, most changing area on the planet shoreline
a deposit of rocky material next to the ocean (sand, pebbles, rocks) the size of the sediment is determined by age beach
older wide beaches with fine sand, the farther south, the finer the sand East Coast
narrow, young beaches, pebbles and rock West Coast
determined by source of sediments color
obsidian (lava flow) black
granite tan
skeletons white
shells pink
shrimp like organisms, potential food source for humans krill
the process of removing salt from water desalination
contains sulfur, phosphorus, and tin, deposits of heavy minerals placers
1900- used echo location to measure depth, map ocean floor (for WWI) German - Meteor
1934- travel 1 km deep in ocean, saw first bioluminescent fish Beebe and Barton
1768-1778- first to scientifically study the ocean James Cook
1872- took ocean samples and measurement ocean depth, minerals HMS Challenger (Murray, Wyville)
a special device used to collect and measure sea water samples Mansen Bottle
Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (up to 100m deep, 600m w/ pressure suit) created by Jacques Costeau SCUBA
diving machine with laboratory equipment Bathyscaph (Alvin)
harshest place, from the high tide line to the low tide line (crabs, minnows, clams) shore zone
very stable conditions, from the low tide line to the edge of the shelf, lots of nekton, plants, plankton neretic zone
(open ocean) area past the continential shelf oceanic zone
drifters plankton
plant plankton, eat by photosynthesis phytoplankton
animal like plankton, feed on phytoplankton zooplankton
living things that swim (sharks) nekton
bottom dwellers, plants or animals that live on the ocean floor (starfish, crabs) benthos
long narrow openings on the ocean floor, the deepest part of the ocean trench
the distance between the top part of a wave and the bottom waveheight
the distance from crest to crest, or trough to trough wavelength
huge ocean waves caused by earthquakes tsunami
cold ocean water with nutrients is brought to the surface upwelling
rising and falling of water due to gravity tides
chemical made by some fish, light without heat luciferin
extreme high and low tides, twice a month spring tide
little difference between the high and low tides, twice a month neap tide
the amount of dissolved salt in a sample of water salinity
top 200 m (plankton, nekton, sharks) light region (sunlight zone)
200-2000 m (octopi, sharks) bathyl region (twilight zone)
2000 m to ocean floor, very harsh conditions, dark and cold, many fish here are biolunenescent deep zone
Created by: hunoni