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Serology Unit

Sources of DNA Blood, semen, teeth, skin, hairs, urine, bones, sweat, tears, saliva, vaginal fluids and muscle.
Serology Investigators can determine a suspect's or victim's identity through this science
Fluids: Semen glows when an ultraviolet light shines on sample
Fluids: Vaginal fluids Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) is a reagent that stains glycogen, which is present in the Epithelial cells that line the vagina.
Fluid: Saliva can be found from food, a cigarette butt, eating utensils, or even an envelope.
Sexual Assaults during sexual assaults, semen, saliva, and vaginal fluids are commonly transferred to the victim, the victim's clothing or nearby surfaces.
Why is timing everything in sexual assaults or rape? Because the duration of sperm mobility in living victims is from 4-6 hours, and sperm can remain in the vagina of a rape-homicide victim for up to 2 weeks. Dried semen stains can remain unidentifiable.
Secretors 80%-85% of the population are secretors, meaning that they emit proteins of their ABO blood type in all bodily fluid. ABO types can be used to eliminate suspects in rape, but not identify a person.
Blood the most common bodily fluid left at a crime scene and it is the most useful.
Plasma the liquid portion of blood, which contains proteins, enzymes, clotting factors, electrolytes, and various cells.
Serum the yellowish liquid leftover after the blood clots
Type of blood cells: Leucocytes white blood cells (WBC)
Type of blood cells: Erthrocytes red blood cells (RBC)
Type of blood cells: Platelets tiny cells that are involved in blood clotting
ABO blood grouping system according to this system, there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB, O
Antigens-Antibodies Example: If you are blood type A, then you have A antigens and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
Rh determines if you have an extra protein (+) or you do not have an extra protein (-)
Blood typing test used to eliminate someone from being a suspect, though it may not pinpoint to someone specific, but is useful.
At the crime scene... You need to answer the questions: Is this blood? Is it human blood? Whose blood is it?
Kastle-Meyer Color Test Phenolphthalein and Hydrogen Peroxide reacts with the heme group of hemoglobin and causes a dark pink color to appear
Hemastix strip a pretreated stick that when in contact with heme group of blood will turn the strip blue-green
Luminol when sprayed on a questioned area it will glow even if the area has been covered up or washed with bleach
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) uses enzymes discovered in bacteria to chop up a person's DNA into pieces, and then compares the length of those pieces
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) does not analyze the DNA, but amplifies a tiny amount of DNA so that other tests can be performed.
Sort Tandem Repeats (STR) uses enzymes discovered in bacteria to chop up a person's DNA into small stretches
Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) found in the mitochondria of the cell, identical copies from the mother are passed down to all of the offspring
Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) a database of DNA fingerprints taken from felons and from biological fluids obtained from crime scenes.
Created by: TBrylewski