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patho terms quiz 2


DNA the nucleic acid that contains all of an individuals genes
Genes a region on DNA that contains the "code" for making one protein
Alleles Different forms of a gene
Dominant an allele that is always expressed
recessive an allele that will be expressed only when a person is homozygous. it an be "hidden"
Genotype a two letter code that describes which alleles a person has
Homozygous Having the same 2 alleles
Heterozygous having different alleles for a gene
Expressed the allele that we can see evidence of
phenotype describes what characteristics are produced as a result of having a certain genotype
chromosomes the combination of DNA and proteins found in a cell that is going through mitosis (humans have 23 pair)
autosomes chromosome pairs 1-22
sex chromosomes the 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans
karyotype describes the microscopic appearance of the chromosomes
diploid having the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes
aneuploid having an abnormal number of chromosomes
monosomy missing one chromosome
trisomy having an extra copy of a chromosome
hematocrit the percentage of blood volume occupied by RBC
mean corpuscular volume MVC the average size of a RBC
anemias s group of diseases that decreases the ability of blood to carry oxygen
luekemias a group of diseases that results in a dramatic increase in the number of leukoblasts
polycythemia having abnormally high number of RBC
pancytopenia a decrease in the number of all normal blood cells
erythrocytopenia a decrease in the number of RBC
leukopenia a decrease in the number of white blood cells
thrombocytopenia having a low number of platelets
hemophilia a genetic decrease in the activity of one of the clotting factors
thallasemias a group of genetic anemias resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of globin chains
intrinsic factor any factor from within the body
extrinsic factor any factor coming from outside the body
intrinsic factor for pernicious anemia a protein secreted by gastric glands that is needed for b12 absorption
extrinsic factor for pernicious anemia vitamin b12
auscultation any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds
echocardiography an ultra sound of the heart
stress test an electrocardiogram performed while the heart rate is elevated
angiography a contrast x-ray showing circulation
cardiac markers proteins released from damaged cardiac tissue into the blood; used as diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction
normal sinus rhythm having a normal heart rhythm established by the sinoatrial node
bradycardia resting heart rate of <60 beats per minute
tachycardia resting heart rate of >100 beats per minute
valvular incompetence the inability of valve to either open or close properly
valvular stenosis the inability of a valve to open completely
valvular prolapse when one of the AV valves swings up into the atrium when it should be closed
atheroscelerosis hardening of the arteries
arteriostenosis narrowing of the arteries
ischemia a local decrease in blood flow due to obstruction
angina pectoris chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia
myocardial infarctions ischemic necrosis of heart muscle. heart attack
TIA a temporary decrease in cerebral function as a result of ischemia
cerebral infarction ischemic necrosis of the cerebrum. stroke
secondary hypertension chronic high BP that is a complication of another condition
primary hypertension chronic high BP of unknown origin
aneurysm localized dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart as a result of a weakness in the wall
hemoptysis coughing up blood fro the lungs
hypoxia a lack of oxygen
hypercapnea an excess of carbon dioxide
respiratory acidosis a decrease in the PH of body fluids as a result of the build up of carbon dioxide
atelectasis a partial or complete collapse of lung tissue
pneumothorax the presence of air between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura
bullae a group of over inflated alveoli
ulcer a lesion through the skin or mucous membrane
peptic ulcer a lesion caused by pepsin
duodenal ulcer a lesion in the mucosal lining of the duodenum
gastric ulcer a lesion in the mucosal lining of the stomach
esophageal ulcer a lesion in the mucosal lining of the esophagus
diverticulum a pouch or sac that develops off of a tubular structure such as the intestine
diverticulitis inflammation of a pouch or sac opening off of a tubular structure
diverticulosis the presence of diverticulum in the intestines
cholelithiasis the presence of stones within the gall bladder or biliary ducts
neuropathy a disease of nervous tissue
myopathy a disease of muscle tissue
intravenous pyelogram a contrast x-ray showing the structures that carry urine
bun a blood test used as an indicator of kidney function. measures the quantity or urea which is a waste product of protein metabolism
creatinine clearance a measure of kidney function that compares the quantity of creatinine excreted in the urine over a 24 hour period to the concentration of creatinine in the blood
cystoscopy using an endoscope to examine the urinary bladder
Created by: 688472874