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Ch. 1-5

Anatomy & Physiology Final

Hierarchy of Complexity Atoms, Molecules, Macromolecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism
Sagittal Plane Cut body into left and right halves
Frontal Plane Cut body into front and back halves
Transverse Plane Cut body into top and bottom halves
Ipsilateral Same side of the body
Contralateral Opposite side of the body
Proximal Toward the point of attachment/ origin
Distal Away from the point of attachment/ origin
Negative Feedback Effects in the opposite direction of the stimulus
Positive Feedback Effect is in the same direction as the stimulus; Used when a process, once started, needs to be completed quickly
Elements of a feedback loop 1. Stimulus 2. Receptor 3. Integration center 4. Effector
Dynamic Equilibrium Things in the body, i.e. temp, can only get so high or low before the brain takes action
Homeostasis Regulation of the body's internal conditions
Parietal Membranes/ Pleura Lines cavity walls/ layer on top of visceral pleura
Visceral Membranes/ Pleura Lines internal organs/ Lining directly on surface of the lungs
Pericardium Lines the heart
Peritoneum Lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Pluera Lines the lungs
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus
Protons Single, (+) Charged, mass= 1 amu
Neutrons No charge, mass= 1 amu
Electrons Single, (-) Charged, very low mass; Determine the chemical properties of an atom
Nucleus Center of an atom
Electrolytes Salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting an electric current; Importance: Chemical reactivity, influence water movement, electrical effects on nerve and muscle tissue
Ions Charged particles with unequal number of protons and electrons
Anions Atom that gains electrons (net negative charge)
Cations Atom that loses an electron (net positive charge)
Chemical Bonds Forces that hold molecules together, or attract one molecule to another
Ionic Bond Relatively weak attraction between an anion and cation
Covalent Bond Relatively Strong attraction; Sharing of 2 or more pairs of electrons between nucleui
Hydrophilic "Water Lover", dissolves in water
Hyrophobic "Water Hater", does not dissolve in water
Acid A proton donor, pH less than 7
Base A proton acceptor, pH greater than 7
pH Measure derived from the molarity of H+
Organic Compounds Compounds with carbon base
Carbohydrates Hydrophilic compound; Primary in humans include monosaccharides, dissacharides, polusaccharides
Lipids Hydrophobic molecule; main function is energy storage, insulation, and shock absorption
Protein A polymer of amino acids
Nucleic Acids Polymers of nucleotides (DNA and RNA
4 types of lipids fatty acids, triglycerides, phospolipids, steroids
Amphiphilic Phospholipids Fatty acid "tails" are hydrophobic, and phosphate "head" is hydrophilic
Trans Fat
Cholesterol Component of the cell membranes; precursor of other steroids
HDL High Density lipoprotein; "good" cholesterol, lower ratio of lipid to protein and also may help cardiovascular disease
LDL Low Density lipoprotein; "bad" cholesterol, high ratio of lipid to protein and contributes to cardiovascular disease
Protein Structure 1. Primary: protein's sequence amino acids which is encoded in gene 2. Secondary: coil or folded shape held together by hydrogen bonds 3. Tertiary: further bending and folding into globular and fibrous shapes 4. Quaternary: three- dimensional shape
Enzyme Proteins that function as biological catalysts
Substrate Substance an enzyme acts upon
Activation Energy Energy needed to get reaction started
3 Components of nucleotides Mitrogenous base(single or double carbon- nitrogen ring), Sugar (monosaccharide), and One or more phosphate group
ATP Best known nucleotide; Adenine (nitrogenous base), ribose (sugar), pphosphate groups (3)
Role or Rough ER Protein synthesis and manufacture of cellular membranes
Role of Smooth ER Lipid synthesis, detoxification, and calcium storage
Role of the nucleus Genetic control center of the cell, directs protein synthesis, and shelters the DNA
Role of ribosomes Interpret the genetic code and sythesize polpeptides
Role of golgi complex Receives and modify newly synthesized polypeptides, carbohydrates, and adds carbohydrates to glycoprotein; packages cel products into golgi vesicles
Role of golgi vesicles Becomes secretory vesicles and carry cell products to apical surface for exocytosis, or become lysosomes
Role of lysosomes Contain enzymes for intracellular digestion, autophagy, programmed cell death and glucose mobilization
Role of mitochondria ATP synthesis
Role of microtubules Form axomes of cilia and flagella, centrioels, basal bodies and mitotic spindles' enable motility of cell parts
Role of centrioles Form mitotic spindles during cell division
Cytoplasm Contains organelles, cytoskeleton, and cytosol (ICF)
Extracellulat fluid Fluid outside of the cell
Plasma Membrane Surrounds the cell and defines the boundaries; Made up of proteins and lipids; Controls passage of materials in and out of the cell
Microvilli "Brush Border", Extensions of membrane; Serve to increase the surface area
Cilia Hairlike processes, used for motility
Flagella Tail of a sperm, whiplike structure with axoneme to cilium
Passive Transport Require no ATP; Filtration, diffusion, osmosis
Active Transport Consumes ATP
Carrier- Mediated Mechanisms Use a membrane protein to transport substances from one side of the membrane to the other
Simple Diffusion The net movement of particles from area of high concentration to low concentration
Facilitated Diffusion Carrier- Mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient
How hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances pass throught the membrane Hydrophobic= Diffusion through the lipid bilayer, Hydrophilic= Diffusion through channel proteins
Osmosis Movement of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other
Hypotonic Solution Has lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than ICF; Cell swelling
Hypertonic Solution Has higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes; Cell shrinkage
Endocytosis Vesicular processes that bring material into the cell
Exocytosis Discharging material from the cell
DNA structure Long, threadlike molecule with uniform diameter
Purines (double ring) Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines (single ring) Cytosine and Thymine
Molecular shape of DNA Double Helix
3 Components of nucleotides Consists of 1 sugar, 1 phosphate group and 1 nitrogenous base
Law of complementary base pairing One strand determines base sequence of the other
Genes Genetc instructions for synthesis of proteins
Genome All the genes of one person; Estimated 20,000-25,000 per human
RNA and DNA differences RNA is much smaller than DNA; Only one nucleotide; Ribose replace deoxyribose; Uracil replaces Thymine
4 Nucleotides Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thyminee, Uracil
Transcription Copying genetic instructions from DNA to RNA; Step from DNA to mRNA in protein synthesis
Translation The process that converts the language of nucleotides into the language of amino acids; Step from mRNA to protein in protein synthesis
Ribosomes Translate sequence of nucleotides into sequence of amino acids
Dominant Allele Corresponding trait is usually detetable in the individual; Masks effect of the recessive allele; Produces protein responsible for the visible trait
Recessive Allele Expressed only when present on both of the homologous chromosomes
Genotype The allele that an individual possesses for a particular trait
Phenotype Observable trait
Penetrance The % of a population with a given genotype that actually exhibits the predicted phenotype
4 Broad categories of Tissues Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscular
Epithelial Tissue Claasified by the # of layers and the cell shape; Structure consists of a flat sheet, one side open to environment or internal space; attached to basement membrane; functions as surface lining and forms glands
Simple Squamous Found in the alveoli (lung) and serosa
Simple Cubodial Lines ducts: thyroid and kidney tubules
Simple Columnar May possess goblet cells; Line the GI tract
Pseudostratified Contain cilia and goblet cells; Found in the respiratory tract
Keratinized Stratified Squamous Found on the palms and soles; Resist abrasion, slows water loss
Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Found on tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus and vagina
Transitional Found in ureter and bladder
Exocrine Glands Deliever through a duct
Endocrine Glands Have no ducts; secrete hormones directly into the blood
Types of fibrous connective tissue Collagenous, elastic, and reticular
Cell types in fibrous connective tissue Fibroblasts, immune cells, adipocytes (fat), chondroblasts (cartilage), osteoblasts (bone) and blood cells
Collagenous Fibers Tough, flexible and rest stretch; Tendons, ligaments and deep layer of skin
Reticular Fibers Form framework of lymph organs; Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein
Elastic fibers Made of protein called elastin; Allows large arteries to stretch and recoil
Types of cartilage Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage Found in the trachea, larynx and lining of the joints
Elatic Cartilage Provides flexible, elastic support; found on the external ear
Fibrocartilage Contains bundles of collagen fibers; Resists compression and absorbs shock
Blood Cells Fluid connective tissue
Plasma Blood's liquid ground substance
Erythrocytes Red blood cells; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes White blood cells; defense against infection and other diseases
Platelets Cell fragments involved in clotting
Skeletal Muscle Striated; Voluntary
Cardiac Muscle Striated; Involuntary
Smooth Muscle Non-Striated; Involuntary
Tight junctions Fusion of outer phospholipid layers; acts as seal between cells
Desmosomes Attach one cell to another by proteins; very strong button like
Gap Junctions Connexons; allow movement of ions and small molecules between cells
Hyperplasia Tissue growth due to increased # of cells
Hypertrophy Tissue growth due to enlargement of preexisting cells
Atrophy Shrinkage of tissue
Metaplasia Change from one type of mature tissue to another
Neoplasia Development of a tumor (neoplasm)
Regeneration Replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same type of cell as before; restores normal function
Fibrosis Replacemetn of damaged cells with scar tissue; does not restore normal function
Serous Membrane (serosa) Internal membrane
Mesothelium Lines body cavities (pericardium, peritoneum, and pleura)
Endothelium Lines blood vessels and heart
Mucus Membrane (mucosa) Lines passageways that open to the outside
Created by: Sweetp12407