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biology exam 2k12

what evidence supports the concept of the universal genetic code? for almost all organisms including human,flies ,yeast and bacteria the same codons are used to code for the same amino acids
what are the steps of replication in the correct sequence? unwinding-base pairing-joining
define semiconservative replication method of DNA replication in which parental strands seperate, act as templates and produce molecules of DNA with one parental DNA strand
list the primary replication enzymes and describe the function of each helicase unzips the DNA--RNA polymerase lays down--RNA primer lays down new nucleotides-- DNA lygase joins the newly formed DNA strands
list the steps of protein synthesis in the correct sequence replication--transcription--translation
a mutation that causes failure to control the cell cycle can lead to_____ cancer
a mutation to a______forms an oncogene that changes normal cells into cancerous cells proto-oncogene
genetically modified organisms can be used to produce large quantities of medicine like insulin.this is an example of the use of_______to improve human quality of life bio technology
list 5 conditions necessary for Hardy-Wienberg equilibrium 1. No genetic drift 2. No gene flow 3. Mating must be random 4. No mutations 5. No natural selection
what is endosymbiosis and what evidence supports it?? eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotic cells; mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA
What are the three hypotheses about the origin of life on earth? 1. simple organic molecule in the primordial soup inhabited early earth 2. life began in deep ocean hydrothermal vents 3. Panspermia-life exists throughout the universe and is transmitted through asteroids and meteorites
What are the three characteristics that all primates share? 1. opposable thumbs 2. complex brains 3. binocular vision
identify three basic trends in hominid evolution 1. brain size 2. bipedalism 3. smaller teeth
what are three adaptations that allowed later hominid species to walk upright? 1. restricted pelvic and foot bones 2. change in position of head and spine 3. shortened arms
classify man from domain to species D= Eukarya K= Animalia P= Chordata C= Mammilia O= Primates F= Homindae G= Homo S= Sapiens
define taxonomy the naming and classifying of species
define clade one of the branches on a cladogram or tree
define cladogram a branching diagram that represents a species or group also called a taxonomic key
define binomial nomenclature giving every organism a two part name 1st name is genus (capitalized). 2nd name is species (lowercase)
What are the six kingdoms 1.Bacteria 2.Archaea 3.Protista 4.Fungi 5.Planate 6.Animalia
bryophytes mosses (nonvascular)
pterophytes ferns and horsetails-reproduce by spores(sporus)
gymnosperms "naked seed" pine,spruce,and fir reproduces with a cone an has needle like leaves
angiosperms "flowering plants" (rose,trees)
vascular plants are also called_____ tracheophytes
define xylem transports water up from the roots
define phloem transports food(sugar) up and down
describe the relationship between stomata and guard cells stomata are the openings in the epidermis guard cells regulate the opening and closing of the stomata
what is a fruit and how does it form ripened ovary; forms primarily from the ovary wall
name the four lobes of the brain frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal
what are the three common serious diseases of the circulatory system? 1. astherosclerosis-->blocked arteries due to fatty deposits (cholesterol) 2.heart attack-blockage in cardiac arteries;stroke if theres blockage in the brain 3.drugs
name 3 controllable risk factors for heart disease and stroke 1.diet 2.exercise 3.smoking
name 3 uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease and stroke 1.age 2.genetics 3.gender (extra)--> race
what is the path of sperm from the testes through fertilization testes->epididymis ->vas deferens-> urethra-> vagina-> uterus-> oviduct
identify and describe the three main and 1 secondary phases of the menstrual cycle. 1.flow phase-->menstrual flow begins(7 days) 2.follicular phase-->hormone causes the lining of the uterus to change(7 more days) 3.ovulation-->releases the egg(day 14) 4.luteal phase;breaking down the corpus luteum if fertilization doesn't take place
trace the path and development of the egg from fertilization to implantation ovary> oviduct> uterus; released from the ovary fertilized in the oviduct implanted in the uterus
identify the milestone in the first trimester of pregnancy all major organs are forming
identify the milestone in the second trimester fetal heartbeat can be heard, lots of fetal activity
identify the milestone in the third trimester rapid growth less active fetus
name 3 nonspecific defenses against pathogens 1.skin 2.chemical barriers 3.cellular defense extra--interferon and inflammation
what is an antibody? proteins that specifically react with a foriegn antigen; produced by lymphocytes
compare and contrast humoral and cell mediated immunity Humoral- secretes antibodies from the B cells and plasma;cell mediated- T cells are produced
What is a vaccine and what is it used for? a weakened or killed pathogen; helps protect against future exposure
what is an antibiotic and what is it used for? a type of medicine that specifically reacts with a foriegn antigen; fights bacteria NOT viruses
how have vaccines and antibiotics changed the patterns of infectious disease? have put an end to childhood diseases
quantitative data is_____ numbers
qualitative data is_____ description
what is a symbiotic relationship? when two or more species live together
in the symbiotic relationship mutualism what happens to the species? both benefit
in the symbiotic relationship commensalism what happens to the species? 1 benefits and the other isn't affected
in the symbiotic relationship parasitism what happens to the species? 1 benefits and the other is hurt or killed
define ecological succession change in an ecosystem
define biodiversity variety of life
loss of habitat is known as______ habitat fragmentation
explain biological magnification the increase in concentration of toxic substances in organisms higher in the food chain
define eutrophication destruction of under water habitats
covalent bonds share electrons
ionic bonds give up electrons
define elements pure substances that can not be broken down
macro molecules are also known as_____ polymers
define hydrolysis the process of adding water and break apart organic molecules
define dehydration synthesis the process of adding organic molecules and subtracting water
describe a compound light microscope 2 lenses; useful for viewing up to 1,000
describe a electron microscope uses a beam of electrons up to 1 million x
describe a scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies the surface of cells; non living organisms only
describe a transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies internal structures; non living organisms only
describe a dissecting microscope also called a stereoscopic microscope; used for larger specimens allows you to see a 3d image, and has 2 eypieces
define exocytosis large particles exit membrane
define endocytosis large particles enter membrane
define phagocytosis food particles enter membrane
define pinocytosis liquid particles enter membrane
Created by: cardonaalex21