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Diseases to Know

Disease to know for APES exam

The 7 deadliest infectious diseases are: Pneumonia and flu, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitus B, measles
Tuberculosis bacterial disease that is on the rise again due to the fact that many don't know they have it, little screening/control programs and genetic resistance to antibiotics. Population growth/urbanization/air travel has allowed to spread far and fast
Slowing the spread of tuberculosis requires early identification and treatment for people w/TB, money funded to getting expensive combinations of drugs, patient must take medicine as directed-not until cough clears up
Influenza (the biggest virus killer!) virus transmitted body fluids and airborne emissions. Hygiene is the best prevention-washing hands, don't touch face, stay away from sick people
HIV 2nd deadliest virus. drugs that prolong life cost 25,000+/yr. poor and developing countries can't afford this.
How to slow spread of HIV reduce the # of new infections through education w/focus on high-risk groups,also give high-risk groups free HIV testing, educated the children about safe sex,provide free/low cost medicines and increase research
Hepatitis B 3rd viral killer that damages liver and spread in same ways as HIV
West Nile Virus transmitted by mosquitoes that have been infected by feeding on birds. Causes encephalitus and meningitis.
SARS Appeared in China in 2002.Flu-like symptoms that can turn into life-threatening pnemonia and spread easily
Malaria 1 in 5 are at risk of catching this parasite that is transmitted by mosquitoes. infects/destroys red blood cell causing fever,chills,headaches,vomiting,weakness and immune supression.kills 1-2 million a year!killed more than all wars ever fought!
Life cycle of malaria uninfected female mosquito bites a person who is infected w/parasite,that mosquito then transfer that parasite to another person who is not infected. the parasite moves to blood and liver and multiplies.
Hurdles of treating malaria now many mosquitoes are resistant to insecticides and the parasites are genetically resistant to anti-malarial drugs, clearing tropical forests spreads it among workers and settlers, global warming is extending range of parasite and mosquito
Possible solutions to malaria problems find funding to develop new anti-malarial drugs and vaccines,genetically engineer mosquitoes to resist parasite,provide poor w/inexpensive insecticide treated bed nets and window screen,supplements that boost resistance in children,pesticides in homes
carcinogen causes cancer
mutagen chemicals or radiation that causes genetic mutations EX)nitrous acid formed by the digestion of nitrite in wine and processed meat, can cause mutations linked to stomach cancer
teratogen chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to fetus or embryo ex)alchohol, lead,mercury, PCB's,vinyl chloride
PCB's-what are they and where are they from? chlorine-containing cmpds that can be solid,liquid or even gaseous.Used until 1977 in lubricants,transformers,fabrics, preservatives and pesticides.can lead to liver and other cancers,learning problems. persistant chemicals lead to biomagnification.
neurotoxins harm nervous system leading to ADD, mental impairment, behavior changes, paralysis and death. EX)PCS's, lead,aresenic and some pesticides
Mercury-a potent teratogen and neurotoxin releasde by some natural sources such as volcanoes but also from coal powerplants,incinerators,gold&silver mines.persistant in environment and seems to acculumate in Arctic.Biomagnified in food chain.we inhale vapors or eat it. major brain damage in fetus
HHA (hormone acting agents) mimic hormones and can impair reproductive systems and sexual development and cause physical and behavior disorders EX) DDT, mercury, PCB's, bisphenol A (in plastics that leech out this chemical in food and water, especially when heated)
Created by: sallywentzell