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mech. of diseases

What is Homeostasis? : internal stability of the body
What is Pathology? abnormal condition causing measurable changes in structure and function
What is Pathogenesis? development of disease in stages
What is asymptomatic? without symptoms
what is Systemic health: Internal equilibrium
what is Disease state: Inability to adapt to internal/external stressors or challenges
what is Syndrome: Defined collection of signs and symptoms that characterize a condition
what is Acute Illness? onset is usually abrupt symptoms present themselves over hours to days duration brief (<6 months
what is Chronic Illness? onset is slower symptoms persist from acute/subacute phases duration indefinite (> 6 months
predisposing factors are also called? risk factors & make a person or group more vulnerable to disease.
what are some predisposing factors? age, gender, lifestyle, environment, and heredity.
describe how age is a risk factor. from complications during pregnancy and the postpartum period to maladies associated with aging, some increased risks of diseases are simply intrinsic to one's stage in the human life cycle.
describe how gender is a risk factor. certain diseases are more common in women(osteoporosis&multiple sclerosis) & more common in men(gout and parkinson's disease).
describe how lifestyle is a risk factor. occupation, habits, or one's usual manner of living can have negative cumulative effects that can threaten a person's health. (ex. alcohol, poor nutrition, lack of excercise, & certain psychological stressors.)
describe how environment is a risk factor air and water pollution is considered a major risk factor for illnesses such as cancer and pulmonary disease. (ex. poor living conditions, excessive noise, chronic psychological stress, etc.)
describe how hereditary is a risk factor or genetic diseases. it's considered a major risk factor. you inherit the disease. if there's family history of the disease, you have a risk of inheriting it.
Infection Modes of transmission include: Direct or indirect physical contact Body fluids/blood Inhalation Ingestion Insect/animal
infection diseases are caused by pathogens.
cardinal signs of infection are? redness, swelling, heat, pain, fever, pus, enlarged lymph glands, and red streaks.
symptoms of widespread infection: fever, headache, body aches, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and delirium.
disease-causing organisms cause disease by invasion and local destruction of living tissue, and intoxication or production of substances that are poisonous to the body.
sources of infection can be? exogenous&endogenous
what is endogenous? originating from within the body
what is exogenous? originating from outside the body
pathogenic agents include? bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
What are the Body’s defense systems against infection: natural mechanical and chemical barriers inflammatory response immune response
Acute inflammatory response is marked by: Redness Heat Swelling Pain Loss of function
what is acute inflammation? a normal protective physiologic response to tissue injury and disease
Acute inflammatory response can be inhibited by: Immune disorders Chronic illness Medications, especially steroids
MRSA is what? Staphylococcus aureus
mrsa can cause? fatal pneumonia, bone infections, and septicemia. & is the a leading cause of surgical wound infections in hospitals.
genetic diseases are ? produced by an abnormality in or mutation of the genetic code in a single gene.
genetic diseases are also? caused by several abnormal genes (polygenic genes) or is caused by the abnormal presence or absence of an entire chromosome or by alteration in the structure of chromosomes.
Genetic mutations: changes in the genetic code that: are passed from one generation to the next may occur spontaneously may be caused by agents that disrupt the normal DNA sequence
Modes of Inheritance for Genetic Diseases are? autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and x-linked recessive
Autosomal dominant: single abnormal gene on only one of a chromosome pair will cause disease. ex) marfan's syndrome & huntington's disease
X-linked (sex-linked) recessive: abnormal gene is only located on an X chromosome Ex) duchenne's muscular dystrophy and hemophilia A
autosomal recessive: same abnormal gene present on both chromosomes of a pair ex) cystic fibrosis and phenylketonuria.
mutagens that can harm dna are: chemicals, radiation, and viruses
genetic abnormalities: huntingtion's chorea, down syndrome, hemophilia, epilepsy, turner's syndrome, cleft palate, myopia, albinism, dwarfism, etc.
Cancer A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation or growth. The uncontrolled growth proliferates at the expense of healthy cells and tissues. The uncontrolled growth can develop into masses of abnormal cells or tumors.
Benign tumors develop slowly can arise from any tissue usually remain encapsulated (self-contained) rarely recur after surgical removal
Malignant tumors cells multiply rapidly do not usually resemble the tissue of origin invade surrounding tissue often recurrent infiltrate to distant sites (metastasize)
cancer is caused by both what? external exposure to carcinogens and internal factors
carcinogens are? chemicals, radiation, and viruses
internal factors are? hormones, immune conditions, and inherited mutations
Cancer risk factors tobacco smoke (active and passive) heavy use of alcohol exposure to environmental carcinogens high fat/low fiber diet excessive exposure to sunlight/UV light sedentary lifestyle exposure to radiation/radon
Cancer screening guidelines for Men: PSA test (prostate-specific antigen) Testicular self-exam
Cancer screening guidelines for Women: Pap smear Mammogram Breast self-exam
Cancer Treatment surgery radiation chemotherapy hormone therapy immunotherapy Palliative surgery
Hospice Care comfort and supportive care for the patient and family during the terminal stages of illness and into the bereavement period emphasis on palliative treatment neither hastens nor postpones death
hospice care cont. considers dying as a normal process provides physical, psychological, and spiritual support may be home-based or in a facility with dedicated hospice services/beds
what are Non-changeable predisposing factors age gender heredity
what are changeable predisposing factors lifestyle and environment
what are some Immune disorders hypersensitivity reaction (allergy) autoimmune disease immunodeficiency disorder
immune disorders are? the result of a breakdown in the body's defense system
Hypersensitivity reaction Exposure to allergen, which acts as antigen Triggers release of histamine, etc. Symptoms produced (mild to life-threatening)
common allergens are? inhalants(dust,molds,fungi), food, drugs, chemicals, and physical agents (heat, cold, and radiation)
initial exposure to an allergen is called antigen(causes an allergic response)
subsequent exposures trigger the allergic response called" antigen-antibody reaction(causing release of histamine and other chemicals
the chemicals cause bothersome symptoms such as? nasal congestion, sneezing, diarrhea, coughing, itching, wheezing, burning, swelling.
common allergic conditions include: seasonal allergic rhinitis(hay fever), allergic sinusitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria(hives), eczema, and food, drug, venom allergy.
symptomatic treatments for allergies include: antihistimines, bronchial dilators, and corticosteroids.
anaphylaxis is: the result of a severe systemic allergic reaction
common causes for anaphylaxis are? insect stings, food, latex, and medications
Aging Process metabolic changes (e.g., decreased liver & kidney function) decreased total body water changes in body composition (e.g., increased adipose tissue, decreased muscle mass) decreased bone density
psychological evaluation encompasses: the observation of behavior, appearance, mood, communication, judgement, and thought process
Diagnosis of Disease medical history physical exam laboratory tests (blood count, chemistry, etc.) imaging tests (MRI, CT, X-ray, ultrasound, etc.) biopsy miscellaneous tests (pulmonary function, cultures, etc.)
Holistic Medical Care Focuses on the needs of the whole person physical spiritual psychological social emotional intellectual
Cultural Diversity Individuality based on numerous differences race ethnicity language culture religious beliefs values/life experiences
Gene therapy Experimental intervention repairs or blocks the expression of specific genes to treat disease. The disease treated with gene therapy may be either inherited or acquired
protocols may be done for gene therapy called: ex vivo (outside body)& in vivo (inside body)
Pain Physiology stimulation of nociceptors found on free nerve endings impulses travel through spinal cord to brain usually signals injury or tissue damage may travel a parallel pathway along spinal cord to brain, resulting in referred pain in another part of the bod
Pain Medications analgesics opioids (narcotics) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) antidepressants anticonvulsants antispasmodics
Psychological Pain feelings of sadness, despair, anger, depression, helplessness, hopelessness thought processes may be impaired sleep patterns may be disrupted may exhibit changes in personality may cry or show signs of withdrawal
words describing psychological pain: uncomfortable sensation, unpleasant experience, distress, strong discomfort, suffering, agony, or simply hurting.
pain resulting from overuse of the musculoskeletal system are: dull and aching
word to describe pain in head throbbing
word to describe nerve pain or insult burning
word describing abdominal-viscera type of pain cramping
other terms are: shooting, stabbing, stinging & in reference to thermal injury, a burning sensation
when expressing how pain is affecting them, such terms are used: frightening, sickening, tiring, discomforting, intense, unbearable, mild, excruciating, and viscious to categorizing pain.
pain receptors respond to 3 different stimuli: temperature extremes, mechanical damage, and dissolved chemicals including potassium, acids, histamines, acetylcholine, etc.`
pain may be classified as: acute, chronic, transient, or intractable
Alternative Medicine Therapies complementary to traditional medicine: osteopathy acupuncture and acupressure massage and reflexology relaxation therapy herbal/nutritional supplements chiropractic hypnosis
Goals of patient teaching facilitate patient compliance with the medical treatment plan clarify information and instructions foster patient independence and responsibility establish trusting, therapeutic relationship
Additional reasons for patient teaching ease anxiety facilitate greater sense of patient control improve patient/family coping highlight goals for recovery or acceptance reduce unnecessary clinic visits and hospitalizations
Created by: a.quimbaya1