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Intro to Com

Intro to communication Final

The process by which we use signs, symbols and behaviors to exchange information and create meaning. Communication
One way process action model
encode to put your idea in the form of language or a gesture that someone can understand.
message consists of the verbal and/or nonverbal elements of communication to which people give meaning.
a type of pathway for conveying messages channel
to interpret decode
receiver the person who will decode the message
noise anything that interferes with a reciver's ability to attend to your message.
various verbal and nonverbal responses to your message feedback
the environment that you're in context
channel-rich contexts environments that incorporate multiple communication channels at once.
channel-lean contexts environments that use relatively fewer channels.
a representation of an idea symbol
communication about communication meta-communication
explicit rules someone has clearly articulated them
implicit rules rules that almost everyone in a certain social group knows and follows, even though no one has formally articulated them.
communication you have with yourself intrapersonalcommunication
communication that occurs between two people in the context of their ongoing relationship. interpersonal Communication
small group communication communication in groups of 3-20 people
public communication occurs when we speak or write to an audience that is larger than a small group
communicating in ways that are effective and appropriate in a given situation. communication competence
the ability to understand other people's thoughts and feelings empathy
Culture the totality of learned shared symbols, language, values and norms that distinguish one group of people from another
Societies groups of people who share common symbols, language, value and norms.
In-group groups of people with which a person identifies.
Out-groups groups of people with which a person does not identify
Ethnicity our perception of our ancestry or heritage.
Nationality our status as a citizen of a particular country.
Enculturation the process of acquiring a culture.
Co-cultures groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual intrests or characteristics besides their national citizenship.
Values the standards it uses to judge how good, desirable, or beautiful something is.
Norms rules or expectations that guide people’s behavior in a culture.
Jargon terminology that is understood only by others in the same co-culture.
Individualistic culture people believe that their primary responsibility is to themselves.
Collectivistic culture people are taught that their primary responsibility is to their families, their communities, and their employers.
Low-context culture people are expected to be direct, to say what they mean, and to not “beat around the bush”.
High-context culture taught to speak in a much less direct way than individuals in a low-context culture.
Low-power distance culture the belief that all men and women are created equal and that no one person or group should have excessive power.
High-power distance culture power is distributed less evenly; certain groups, such as the royal family or the members of the ruling political party, have great power, and the average citizen has much less.
Masculine culture values ambition, achievement, and the acquisition of material goods.
Feminine culture values nurturance, quality of life, and service to others.
Monochromic time as a commodity
Polychromic time as more holistic and fluid and less structured.
Uncertainty avoidance the extent to which people try to avoid situations that are unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable.
Mindful aware of how their behaviors and ways of thinking are likely to differ from our own.
Similarity assumption we presume that most people think the same way we do, without asking ourselves whether that’s true.
Ethnocentrism the tendency to judge other cultures’ practices as inferior to one’s own.
Communication codes verbal and nonverbal behaviors whose meanings are often understood only by people from the same culture
Idiom a phrase whose meaning is purely figurative
Gestures movements, usually of the hand or arm, that express ideas.
Ambiguity lack of certainty
Adapt to change your behavior to accommodate what others are doing.
Perception the process of making meaning from what we experience in the world around us.
Selection the process by which your mind and body help you isolate certain stimuli to pay attention to.
Organization the classification of information in some way.
Perceptual schema a mental framework for organizing information into categories.
Interpretation to figure out its meaning for you
Stereotype a generalization about a group or category of people that can have a powerful influence on how we perceive other people and their communication behavior.
Primacy effect first impressions are critical because they set the tone for all future interactions.
Recency effect the most recent impression we have of a person’s communication is more powerful than our earlier impressions.
Perceptual set a person’s predisposition to perceive only what he or she wants or expects to perceive.
Attribution an explanation
Self-serving bias relates primarily to how we explain our own behaviors, refers to our tendency to attribute our successes to stable, internal causes while attributing our failures to unstable, external causes.
Fundamental attribution error we attribute other people’s behaviors to internal rather than external causes.
Self-concept composed of those stable ideas about who you are
Identity you understanding of who you are.
Self-fulfilling prophecy a situation in which an expectation prompts you to act and communicate in ways that make that expectation come true.
Facework the behaviors we use to project that image to others
Face our desired public image
Face needs important components of our desired public image
Language a structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning.
Denotative meaning the literal meaning
Connotative meaning the ideas or concepts that the word suggests in addition to its literal meaning
Norm of reciprocity when someone gives you some type of gift or resource, you are expected to return the favor.
Social validation principle people will comply with requests if they believe that others are also complying.
Euphemism a vague, mild expression that symbolizes and substitutes for something that is blunter or harsher.
Nonverbal communication behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words.
Nonverbal channels the various behavioral forms that nonverbal communication takes
Oculesics the study of eye behavior, as a separate nonverbal channel
Kinesics the study of movement
Gesticulation the use of arm and hand movements to communicate
Emblems any gesture that have a direct verbal translation
Illustrators gestures that go along with a verbal message to clarify it.
Affect display gestures that communicate emotion
Regulators gestures that control the flow of conversation
Adaptors gestures you use to satisfy some personal need
Haptics the study of how we use touch to communicate
Vocalics speaking with a particular tone of voice to suggest that you are irritated, amused or bored
Olfactics study of the sense of smell
Proxemics the study of the use of space
Intimate distance the zone of space willingly occupied only with intimate friends, family members, and romantic partners.
Personal distance the zone of space occupied with close friends and relatives.
Social distance the zone of space occupied with casual acquaintances
Public distance the zone of space maintained during a public presentation.
Halo effect a predisposition to attribute positive qualities to physically attractive people.
Chronemics the use of time
Artifacts objects and visual features that reflect a person’s identity and preferences
Listening the active process of making meaning out of another person’s spoken message.
Hearing the sensory process of receiving and perceiving sounds
Attending paying attention to someone’s words well enough to understand what that person is trying to communicate.
HURIER model a model describing the stages of effective listening as hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, and responding.
Informational listening listening to learn
Critical listening listening to evaluate or to analyze
Empathetic listening listening to experience what the speaker thinks or feels.
Pseudolistening pretending to listen.
Selective attention listening only to what one wants to hear and ignoring the rest
Information overload the state of being overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information encountered each day.
Glazing over daydreaming or allowing the mind to wander while another person is speaking.
Rebuttal tendency the propensity to debate a speaker’s point and formulate a reply while that person is still speaking
Closed-mindedness the tendency not to listen to anything with which one disagrees.
Competitive interrupting the practice of using interruptions to take control of the conversation
Confirmation bias the tendency to pay attention only to information that supports one’s values and beliefs, while discounting or ignoring information that does not.
Vividness effect the tendency of dramatic, shocking events to distort one’s perceptions of reality.
Skepticism an attitude that involves raising questions or having doubts.
Need to belong theory a psychological theory proposing a fundamental human inclination to bond with others
Attraction theory a theory that explains why individuals are drawn to others.
Interpersonal attraction the force that draws people together.
Physical attraction attraction to someone’s appearance
Social attraction attraction to someone’s personality
Task attraction attraction to someone’s abilities or dependability.
Proximity closeness, as in how closely together people live or work.
Complementarity the beneficial provision by another person of a quality that one lacks
Uncertainty reduction theory theory suggesting that people find uncertainty to be unpleasant, so they are motivated to reduce their uncertainty by getting to know others.
Social exchange theory theory suggesting that people seek to maintain relationships in which their benefits outweigh their cost.
Self-disclosure act of intentionally giving others information about oneself that believes is true but thinks others don’t already have
Social penetration theory indicates that the depth and breadth of self-disclosure helps us learn about a person we’re getting to know.
Breadth the range of topics one discusses with various people
Interdependence the state in which what happens tone person affects everyone else in the relationship
Dialectical tensions conflicts between two important but opposing relational needs or desires.
Polygamy the state of having two or more romantic partners at once
Monogamy the state of being in only one romantic relationship at a time and avoiding romantic or sexual involvement with others outside that relationship
Initiating stage the stage of relationship development at which people meet and interact for the first time
Experimenting stage the stage of relationship development at which people converse to learn more about each other.
Intensifying stage the stage of relationship development at which people move from being acquaintance to being close friends.
Integrating stage the stage of relationship development at which a deep commitment has formed and the partners share a strong sense that the relationship has its own identity
Bonding stage the stage of relationship development at which partners make a public announcement of their commitment to each other.
Communication privacy management theory a theory explaining how people in relationships negotiate the tension between disclosing information and keeping it private
Differentiating stage the stage of relationship dissolution at which partners begin to view their differences as undesirable or annoying.
Circumscribing stage partners begin to decrease the quality and quantity of their communication with each other
Stagnating stage the relationship stops growing and the partners feel as if they are just “going through the motions.”
Avoiding stage partners create physical and emotional distance from each other.
Terminating stage the relationship is officially deemed to be over
Family of origin the family in which one grows up, usually consisting of parents and siblings.
Family of procreation the family one starts as an adult, usually consisting of a spouse or romantic partner and children.
Family rituals repetitive activities that have special meaning to the family.
Confirming messages behaviors that convey how much another person is valued
Disconfirming messages behaviors that imply a lack of respect or value of others.
Stonewalling withdrawing from a conversation
Cohesion the force by which the members of a group work together in the service of a common goal.
Resources entitles that enable a group to be productive.
Synergy a collaboration that produces more than the sum of its parts.
Social loafing the tendency of some members of a group to contribute less to the group than the average member does, particularly as the group grows in size.
Brainstorming an idea-generating process in which group members offer whatever ideas they wish before any are debated.
Nominal group technique an idea-generating process in which group members generate their initial ideas silently and independently and then combine tem and consider them as a group.
Ideawritng each member adds three or four ideas to a pile and then offers comments on others’ ideas. Afterward, members respond to comments made about their ideas and generate a master list of ideas worth of consideration.
Unanimous consensus uncontested support for a decision sometimes the only option in a group’s decision-making process.
Stalemate an outcome where members’ opinions are so sharply divided that consensus is impossible to achieve.
False consensus an outcome where some members of a group say they support the unanimous decision even though they do not.
Majority rule a decision- making process that follows the will of the majority.
Minority rule a small number of members makes a decision on behalf of the group.
Expert opinion recommendations of individuals who have expertise in a particular area that are sometimes the basis of a group’s decision-making process.
Authority rule the leader of the group makes the decisions.
Traits defining characteristics of a person that are often relatively enduring and not easily changeable.
Extroversion people who are friendly, assertive, and outgoing with others.
Introversion people who are shy, reserved, and aloof
Communication apprehension anxiety or fear about communicating with others
Democratic style every member of a group has the right to participate in decision making.
Autocratic style leader see themselves as having both the authority and responsibility to take action on the group’s behalf
Reward power based on the leader’s ability to reward another for doing what the leaders says
Laissez-faire style leaders offer minimal supervision
Coercive power a form of power that comes from the ability to punish
Referent power a form of power that derives from attraction to the leader
Legitimate power a form of power in which leaders’ status or position gives them the right to make requests with which others must comply
Expert power a form of power that stems from having expertise in particular area.
Informational power a form of power that stems from the ability to control access to information.
Groupthink a situation in which group members seek unanimous agreement despite their individual doubts.
Created by: sunflowers22