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CST 229 Ch 8 Vocab

CST 229 Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Perception the process of selecting cues quickly from the environment, organizing them into a coherent pattern and labeling such a pattern, and interpreting that pattern in accordance to our expectation
Selective Attention Process is used when we pick out cues quickly and especially selecting social stimuli or cues that grab our attention
Selective Organization and Labeling Process is used when we organize our perceptions by grouping similar objects, people, or things together and labeling them with a symbol or name
Selective Interpretation is when we attach meanings to the data we receive, and this meaning construction process often reflects our expectations and biases
Ethnocentrism means that we consider the views and standards of our own ingroup as more important than those of any outgroup
Distance of Indifference (Low Ethnocentrism) reflects the lack of sensitivity in our verbal and nonverbal interactions in dealing with dissimilar others
Distance of Avoidance (Moderate Ethnocentrism) reflects attempted linguistic or dialect switching int he presence of outgroup members, as well as displayed nonverbal inattention to accentuate ingroup connection and avoidance of outgroup members
Distance of Disparagement (High Ethnocentrism) refers to the use of racist jokes or hatefilled speech used to downgrade outgroup members
Denial of Cultural Difference the state in which one's own cultural difference is experienced as the only real one
Defense Against Cultural Difference the state in which one's own culture (or adopted culture) is experienced as the only good one
Minimalization of Cultural Difference the state in which elements of one's own culture are viewed as "universals"
Acceptance of Cultural Difference the state in which one's own culture is experienced as one of many possible diverse and complex cultural experiences
Adaptation of Cultural Difference the state in which the experience of another culture yields perceptual shifting - seeing things from the other cultural angle- and also behavioral adaptation appropriate to that cultural frame of reference
Integration of Cultural Difference the state in which the individual intentionally incorporates diverse cultural worldviews into one's identity and is able to transform polarized value sets into complementary value sets
Stereotype exaggerated pictures we create about a group of people on the basis of our inflexible beliefs and expectations about the characteristics or behaviors of the group
Inflexible Stereotyping (Mindless Stereotyping) holds on to preconceived and negative stereotypes by operating on automatic pilot
Flexible Stereotyping (Mindful Stereotyping) refers to treating our own stereotypic images as the "first-best guesses" and being aware that we are engaging in stereotyping others based on overgeneralizations or overexaggerated images because of unfamiliarity or ignorance
Ingroup Communication happens whenever individuals belonging to one group interact, collectively or individually, with another group or its members in terms of their ingroup identification
Ingroup Favoritism Principle states that there is positive attachment to and predisposition for norms that are related to one's ingroup
Attributions the explanations, causes, or reasons we ascribe to why people behave the way they behave or why certain events happen
Fundamental Attribution Error occurs when we trend to engage in cognitively biased explanations by overestimating negative personality traits in explaining a stranger's undesirable actions and underestimating external, situational factors
Principle of Negativity occurs when we typically place more emphasis on negative information concerning our competitors or outgroup members
Favorable Self-Bias and Other-Derogation Principle the tendency to favor ourselves and our ingroup in explaining our success and to create belittling explanation for others' or outgroups members' successes
Self-Effacement Bias refers to the attributional explanation of individuals to use self-humbling or self-modesty interpretation to explain the failed events caused by their lack of ability or oversight
Prejudice describes an individual's feelings and predispositions toward outgroup members in a pejorative or negative direction
Exploitation Theory views power as a scarce resource
Scapegoating Theory suggests prejudiced individuals believe that they are the victims of society
Authoritarian Personality Approach emphasizes personality features of the individual, including a rigid observance of conventional norms, complete acceptance of authority, and a high concern for those in power
Structural Approach stresses the climate in one's society whereby institutions promote a "pecking order" among group members
Isolate Discrimination harmful verbal and nonverbal action is intentionally targeted toward an outgroup member
Small-Group Discrimination when a band of individuals from an outgroup engages in hostile and abusive actions against outgroup members
Direct Institutional Discrimination occurs when there is a community-prescribed endorsement of discrimination
Indirect Institutional Discrimination a broad practice that indirectly affects group members without intending to
Racial Profiling the singling out of one particular ethnic group in a police investigation
Racism occurs when members of the majority group present their group in a positive light and the minority in a negative light
Hate Crime typically motivated by hostility to the victim as a member of a group
Created by: ksison