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Earth History Voc.

Lithosphere layer of earth made up of crust and rigid part of the upper mantle
Asthenosphere layer in earth's upper mantle that is soft because it is close to melting
Tectonic Plates one of large moving pieces of Earth's lithosphere (oceanic/continental)
Continental Drift hypothesis that Earth's continents move on Earth's surface
Pangaea hypothetical super continent that included all the land masses of Earth, broke apart 200 million years ago
Theory of Plate Tectonics theory stating that Earth's lithosphere is broken into huge plates that move and change size over time
Rift Valley deep valley formed as tectonic plates move apart, such as along a mid-ocean ridge
Magnetic Reversal switch in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field so that magnetic north and south switch
Hot Spot area where a column of hot material rises from deep within the mantle and heats the lithosphere, causing volcanic activity
Subduction when oceanic plate sinks under another plate in Earth's mantle
Inner Core a ball of hot, solid metals
Outer Core a layer of liquid metals that surrounds the inner core
Mantle the layer of rock between Earth's outer core and crust, in which most rock is hot enough to flow in convection currents; Earth's thickest layer
Crust a thin layer of cool rock
Convection Current a circular pattern in which material is heated and rises in one area, then cools and sinks in another area, flowing into a continuos loop
Divergent Boundary a boundary along which two tectonic plates move apart, characterized by either a mid-ocean ridge or a continental rift valley
Convergent Boundary a boundary along which two tectonic plates push push together, characterized either by subduction or continental collision
Continental-Continental Collision a boundary along which two plates carrying continental crust push together
Mid-Ocean Ridge a long line of sea floor mountains where new ocean crust is formed by a volcanic activity along a divergent boundary
Convection the transfer of energy from place to place by the motion of heated gas or liquids
Transform Boundary a boundary along which two tectonic plates scrape past each other, and crust is neither formed nor destroyed
Oceanic-Oceanic a boundary along which a plate carrying oceanic crust sinks beneath another plate with oceanic crust
Oceanic-Continental Subduction a boundary along which a plate carrying oceanic crust sinks beneath a plate with continental crust
Fossil an object that is a trace or remains of living things from the past
Original Remains fossils that are the actual bodies or body parts of an organism Ex: Bones
Ice Core a sample of earth that is taken in a tube and shows the layers that have built up over thousands of years
Relative Age (Dating) the age of an even or object in relation to other events or objects (younger or older)
Absolute Age (Dating) the actual age in years of an object or event
Index Fossil fossils of organisms that were in common, lived in many areas, and existed only during a certain time span
Half-Life the length of time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to change to another form
Uniformitarianism the theory that Earth is an always changing place and that the same forces of change from the past are at work today
Geological Time Scale the scale that divides Earth's history into intervals that are defined by major events or changes on Earth
Created by: ThompsonML