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Motor Learning

HKIN 198

Motor behaviour: study of psychological and physiological processes affecting motor performance
Motor performance: always observable. influenced by many factors (motivation, attention, physical conditioning)
Motor control: study of the neurophysiological factors that affect human movement Focuses on the UNDERSTANDING of the execution of the process (that lead to himan skills and movement)
Motor learning: the study of practice in acquiring and perfecting skills Focuses on the WAY processes are developed
Motor development: the study of changes in motor behaviour which reflect the interaction of the maturation and the environment
Reflective movements: simplest movements in human body
CNS -central nervous system brain and spinal cord responsible for integrated and complicated set of communications that allow us to feel, think, respond and react.
PNS -peripheral nervous system all nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord. sensory division--visceral/somatic motor division--visceral--sympathetic/parasympathetic --somatic
Nerves consist of: MYELINATED AXONS carry: -sensory info to CNS -motor info from CNS (to muscles and glands
afferent: Toward
Efferent: Away from
Soma: control centre of neuron. single, central nucleus with a large nucleates
Dendrites: primary site to receive signals from neurons. (one or many)
Axon Hilocks: where axons originate and signals are summated
Axon: specialized for rapid conduction of nerve signals
Terminal end: extensive complex of 5 branches ending with a synaptic knob
Propagation: as the electrical current goes through the axon there is action potential that spikes when the NA+ channel opens and releases NA+ into the cell.. followed by the opening and release of K+.
Action Potential: short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls (ie:muscle cells=first step to contraction) ...occurs with propagation
Synapse-chemical structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell
hindbrain/brainstem: sets rythem of breathing and controls rate and force of breathing movements and heartbeat
medulla: responsible for breathing, HR, posture
pons: wider part of brainstem
Cerebellum: important for motor control. involved with skeletal muscle function (movement patterns. posture and balance. regulates force, rate and range of movements
Midbrain :above pons reticular formation: loosely organized web of gry matter that runs vertically along all levels of the brain stream. Responsible for alertness, arousal and consciousness.
Forebrain: structures that arise from the Embryonic Dieneephalon
Thalamus integration centre (sensory inputs pass). relay centre for sensory and motor information. continue to cortex and cerebellum gateway to cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus: neural and hormonal functions effect constancy of internal body environment. governs body temp. appetite. responsible for sleep and circadian rhythms
Cerebrum: largest part of human brain. complex, not entirely understood
Frontal lobe: voluntary motor, motivation, foresight, planning, memory, mood, emotion, social judgement
Parietal lobe: recieving and interpreting signals for task and some visual processing
Occipital lobe: visual centre of brain
Temporal lobe: hearing, smell, learning, memory, vision, emotion
Insula: spoken language, taste, integrating, some sensory information
Neural Integration: carried out in grey matter of cerebrum 1. cerebral cortex 2. basal nuclei 3.limbic system
1. cerebral cortex: outermost neural tissue (surface) memory, attention, perceptual awareness 3 parts= sensory, motor, association
2. Basal Nuclei: mass of cerebral grey matter buried in white not 100% understood modifies commands Parkinsons affects this area
3. Limbic System: emotion and learning involved in gratification and aversion
EEG: electoencephalogram:
Sleep: a temporary state of unconsciousness occurs in a circadian cycle/rhythm
Stages of sleep: Alpha waves-drowsy, relaxed light sleep moderate to deep sleep (20 min in) Theta and Delta waves Slow wave to deep REM--this happens 5 times a night
cognition: range of mental processes by which we acquire and use knowledge--- sensory perception, thought, reasoning, judgement, memory
Emotion: not exclusively cerebral functions-- interactions with prefrontal and diecephalon feeling= from limbic system and hypothalamus
Sensation: primary sensory cortex sites
Special senses limited to head --employ complex sense organs vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste, smell
Language: reading, writing, speaking, understanding
Wernicke area: recognition of spoken and written language
Broca area: speech planning and preparation
Aphasia: language deficit resulting in lesions (slow and difficult speech formation
Memory: cognitive function --special attention info management and learning
Amnesia: defects in declarative memory
Anteroamnesia: unable to store new info
Retroamnesia: unable to recall past knowledge
Synaptic Plasticity: physical basis
Motor control: intension to contract skeletal muscle begins in motor association. transmitted to --precentral gyrus--brainstem and spinal cord
Cerebral Lateralization: (left) categorical spoken and written language linear thought processes sequential and analytical
Cerebral Lateralization: (right) representational perceives info in a more integrate and holistic way imagination/insight, musical, artistic, pattern/spatial relationship non-linear
Sense organs nervous tissue and others that enhance responses to certain stimulus simple and complex
Receptore structure specialized to detect stimulus -some are simple, bare nerve endings, others complex
Purpose of Receptors: transduction initial response=small electrical charge transmits 4 kinds of info: 1. modality 2. location 3. intensity 4. duration
modality refers to type/sensation it produces (vision, hearing, taste)
Location: any sensory neuron detects stimuli in 'receptive field'
Intensity: 3 ways encoded: 1. stimulus inten. rises, firing frequencies of nerve fibers rise 2. intense stimuli recruit greater number of nerve fibres to fire 3. weak stimuli activate only most sensitive nerve fibres. Strong stimuli have a broader range to activa
Duration 'sensory adaptation'. if prolonged, firing of neuron slows and we become less aware phasic: generate quick bursts of action potentials tonic: adapt alowly. generate signals steadily
classifications by stimulus modality: a) thermoreceptors: respond to heat and cold b) photoreceptors: how the eyes respond to light c) nociceptors: how body responds to tissue injury d) mechanoreceptors: physical deformation of cell or tissue
classification by origin of stimulus: a) exteroceptors: external sense stimuli b) interceptors: internal organs sense stimuli c) proprioceptors: sense position or movement of body or its parts
classification by distribution of receptors: 2 broad classes: a) general --employ receptors widely distributed b) special-- limited to head, complex, sense organs
Discrete: specific, brief (catch..)
Continuous: repetative and rhythmic, ongoing (hammering)
Serial: linked together skills -- ordered (shifting gears) (swimming)
Motor skill: task/performance used to distinguish skill level... 1. goal to achieve 2. voluntarily performed 3. requires body and limb movement 4. learned..
Cognitive skill: decision-making =MAX
open= unpredictable and variable
closed= predictable and stable
Gentile's 2D taxonomy: 1. environmental (open and closed) conditions dont change 2. Required actions a) movement involve body movement? b) movement involve manipulation?
Application Allows: 1. evaluation of capabilities/ future therapy 2. Selection of functionally appropriate activities 3. charting of progress
Stages of performance and learning: 1. performance proficiency: bring same result with max certainty focus= max certainty -- skill on demand = success min energy expenditure -- do mroe with less.. more energy min movement time -- quick in short time. haste = erro
Implicit repetition segment training 4 laws: 1. explanation 2. demonstration 3. limitation 4. repetition
Abilities: inherited, stable, few
Skill: developed, modified, many
Created by: tryhard