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Lithosphere layer of earth made up of crust and the rigid part of the upper mantle
Asthenosphere layer in earth’s upper mantle that is soft because it is close to melting
Tectonic plate one of large moving pieces of Earth’s lithosphere (oceanic/continental)
Continental drift hypothesis that Earth’s continents move on Earth’s surface
Pangaea hypothetical super continent that included all the land masses of Earth, broke apart 200 million years ago
Theory of plate tectonics theory stating that Earth’s lithosphere is broken into huge plates that move and change in size over time.
Rift valley deep valley formed as tectonic plates move apart, such as along a mid- ocean ridge
Magnetic reversal switch in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field so that magnetic north and south switch
Hot spot area where a column of hot material rises from deep within the mantle and heats the lithosphere, causing volcanic activity
Subduction when oceanic plate sinks under another plate in Earth’s mantle
Fossil an object that is a trace or remains of living things from the past.
original remains Fossils that are the actual bodies or body parts of an organism (ex. Bones)
ice core a sample of earth that is taken in a tube and shows the layers that have built up over thousands of years
relative age (dating) the age of an even or object in relation to other events or objects (younger or older)
absolute age (dating) the actual age in years of an object or event
index fossil Fossils of organisms that were common, lived in many areas, and existed only during a certain time span
half-life the length of time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to change to another form
Uniformitarianism the theory that Earth is an always- changing place and that the same forces of change from the past are at work today.
Geological Time Scale 1. Geological Time Scale- the scale that divides Earth’s history into intervals that are defined by major events or changes on Earth
Inner Core innermost hottest part as detected by seismological studies, is a primarily solid sphere about in radius, only about 70% that of the Moon. It is believed to consist of an iron-nickel alloy, and may have a temperature similar to the Sun's surface.
Outer core a liquid layer layer about 2,260 kilometers thick composed of iron and nickel which lies above the Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
Mantle The region of the earth's interior between the crust and the core, believed to consist of hot, dense silicate rocks (mainly peridotite)
Crust # The outermost layer of rock of which a planet consists, esp. the part of the earth above the mantle
Mid-ocean ridge Underwater mountain system that consist of various mountain ranges
Convection The movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of , which consequently results in transfer of heat
Transform boundary A transform boundary is a boundary in which two plates (portions of Earth’s lithosphere) slide past each other without creating or destroying lithosphere
Convection current a current in a fluid that results from convection
Divergent boundary In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Convergent boundary Where two plates are moving together
Continental-continental collision Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries
Oceanic-oceanic subduction Occurs when ocean crust sinks under continental crust, it sinks because it's colder and denser,at these sites, deep-ocean trenches also form along with coastal .
Oceanic-continental subduction In the scope of lithospheric plate movements, both boundaries are areas where the more dense of the colliding plates slides under the lighter one, and moves
Created by: WhiteTd