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High-Tech Architecture Architectural genre which celebrates & elaborates the constructive, structural, and technological systems of a building in an expressively industrial/mechanical manner.
Traits of High-Tech Architecture 1.Elaboration and exposure of the structural system 2.General aesthetic is based on machinery and industrial elements 3.Use of prefabricated / replaceable components and mass-produced parts 4.Exposure of service systems normally hidden
Eero Sarrinen John Deere World Headquarters
Centre Pompidou-Paris Richard Rogers & Renzo Piano
INMOS Factory Richard Rogers
Lloyds of London Richard Rogers
De Menil Collection Renzo Piano
Sainsbury Art Centre Norman Foster
Renault Distribution Centre Norman Foster
Hong Kong Bank Norman Foster
Waterloo Station Nicholas Grimshaw
Astronaut Memorial Holt Hinshaw Pfau Jones
Techno-Environmentalism the enacting of green systems for things like passive cooling, economy of material, etc. without sacrificing the robust technological expression.
Tjibaou Cultural Centre Renzo Piano
London City Hall Norman Foster
Hearst Building- New York City Norman Foster
Swiss Reinsurance Building Norman Foster
Organic Architecture promotes harmony between man and nature through design so well integrated with its site that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.
Traits of Organic Architecture (1) 1.Harmonious / integrated relationship to the natural site 2.Use of material indigenous to / representative of the site 3.“Natural” forms = biomorphic & curvilinear; pod-like & cellular; fractal & rocky
Traits of Organic Architecture (2) 4.Meandering designs that appear to have “grown” like a natural occurrence 5.Blurring of the distinction between inside and outside 6.Environmentalism concerns, both technical and spiritual
Fallingwater Frank Lloyd Wright
Taliesin West Frank Lloyd Wright
First Christian Church – Phoenix Frank Lloyd Wright
Ford House Bruce Goff
Bavinger House Bruce Goff
Prairie Chicken House Herb Greene
Joe Price House Bart Prince
High Desert House Kendrick Bang Kellogg
Elrod House John Lautner
Platt Residence Will Bruder
Los Angeles Avant Garde Frank Israel, Eric Owen Moss, Morphosis (Michael Rotondi--ROTO & Thom Mayne)
Tectonic Baroque design where the tectonics – materials, joinery, formal systems – are multiplied, elaborated, and overlain to create abstractly ornamental, visually complex designs.
Traits of Tectonic Baroque 1. Use of several materials that fragment together in one design 2. Interaction in plan and section of multiple formal and geometric systems 3. Tectonics of skin, skeleton, & joinery are exuberantly elaborated 4. Insert interior elements(pseudo-machine
Bright & Associates Frank Israel
Dan House Frank Israel
Goldberg-Bean Residence Frank Israel
Gary Group Eric Owen Moss
3535 Hayden Eric Owen Moss
Stealth Building Eric Owen Moss
Lawson-Weston House Eric Owen Moss
Morphosis Architects Thom Mayne & Michael Rotondi
Venice III House Morphosis
Kate Mantiline Restaurant Morphosis
Diamond Ranch High School Morphosis
Carlson Reges Residence Roto
Deconstructivism characterized by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlled chaos, and moving architecture away from what its practitioners see as the constricting 'rules' of modernism
Deconstructivism Traits 1. Designs which feature fragmentation, collision, peeling, instability 2. Non-Euclidean geometry= few 90 angles, many sharp angles, loss of geometry as tool of order 3. Mix of forms and systems with no regard to organizational repercussions
MoMA show Show exhibiting international architects
Parc la Villette Bernard Tschumi
Wexner Center for Visual Arts Peter Eisenman
Aronoff Center for Design and Art Peter Eisenman
Vitra Fire Station Zaha Hadid
Jewish Museum Berlin Daniel Libeskind
Dever Art Museum Daniel Libeskind
"The Crystal" ROM (Royal Ontarion Museum) Daniel Libeskind
Gehry House Frank Gehry
Schnabel House Frank Gehry
Vitra Chair Museum Frank Gehry
Attic Renovation Coop Himmelblau
UFA Cinema Center Coop Himelblau
3 parts of Neo-Traditionalism 1. Neo-Vernacular 2. Historicism 3. New Urbanism
Vernacular Of or being an indigenous building style using local materials and traditional methods of construction and ornament, especially as distinguished from academic or historical architectural styles
Neo-Vernacular Design which reinterprets vernacular architecture through the lens of contemporary design
Traits of Neo-Vernacular 1. Uses barns, sheds, and other indigenous building typologies as precedents. 2. simple forms and roofs 3. Exposed low-tech structure (stick framing, exposed rafters, rammed earth, etc.)
Critical Regionalism strives to counter placelessness and lack of identity in Modern Architecture by using the building's geographical context
Critical Regionalism Quote “The paradox: how to become modern and to return to sources; how to revive an old, dormant civilization and take part in universal civilization” K. Frampton “Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance”
Critical Regionalism Info Architects should use modern architecture in a critical fashion -- gaining from its universal & progressive qualities, its attention to structure and order -- but simultaneously use solutions particular to the context
Zachary House Stephen Atkinson
Mason Bend Chapel Rural Studio
Cook House Mockbee-Coker
Carraro Residence Lake Flato Architects
Thorncrown Chapel Faye Jones
Marika Alderton House Glen Murcutt
Historicism Design which recreates traditional/historic architectural styles for modern programs, faithfully and without irony
Traits of Historicism Uses high-style historical architecture as formal, organizational, and tectonic precedent.
Weill Hall Robert A. M. Stern
Maitland Robinson Library Quinlan Terry
New Urbanism An urban planning movement which advocates creating tradition-inspired communities using design principles found in earlier, pre-automobile, small-town environments.
Traits of New Urbanism • Desire for return to an idealized (possibly mythic) sense of community • Belief that these can solve societal and environmental problems • Codifies both neo-vernacular and historicist architectural / urban typologies to enforce desired goals.
Seaside, FL Neo Traditional town that advertises itself as a small town, yet it's legally a subdivision with privately owned streets, although outsiders do attend community events and shop at its stores.
Poundbury Masterplan by Leon Krier Planned Community in Dorchester, Great Britain
Minimalism Trend in various forms of art and design where the work is reduced / condensed to a few features / elements.
Traits of Minimalism 1. Pure forms/shapes, purged of complex edges, surfaces, transitions, & additions 2. Restrained palette of materials 3. Neutral, unbroken surfaces / elimination of lines, detail, joints 4. there is equality and repetition without differentiation
Christo wrapping
Most known for large sculptures made of curved plates of Cor-ten steel Richard Serra
Tilted Arc Richard Serra
Kanye West Apartment Claudio Silvestrin
Walsh House John Pawson
Minimalism Quote “Minimalist Architecture Principle: Sort out what your highest priority architectural requirements are, and then do the least you possibly can to achieve them.”
“Ornament is a crime.” & "Less is More" Minimalism
Glass House Philip Johnson
Elektra House David Adjaye
Tubac House Rick Joy
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Lin
Church of the Light Tadao Ando
Fort Worth Museum of Modern Art Tadao Ando
Murcia Town Hall Rafael Moneo
De Blas House Alberto Campo Baeza
Material Modernism Architectural work that is Modernist in formal language coupled with a more diverse and intricate exploration of material, detail, & surface strategies.
Traits of Material Modernism • Modernist general formal nature -- boxy forms, simple geometry, clean lines • Use of a mixed palette of materials creates diverse collage instead of a unified visual field (like minimalism) • Intricacy of designed moments, surface, detail, and joinery
Phenomenalism/Phenomenology 1. Architecture philosophy based on the experience of building materials and their sensory properties. 2. Investigation of materials by celebrating different properties, juxtaposing different haptic properties of the same material or different materials.
'a relentless analysis of detail.' Material Modernism
Castelvecchio Museum Carlo Scarpa
Stretto House Steven Holl
Chapel of St. Ignatius Steven Holl
The Neurosciences Institute Williams + Tsien
Museum of American Folk Art Williams + Tsien
Thermal Baths Peter Zumthor
Kunsthaus Bregenz Peter Zumthor
Signal Box Herzog & DeMeuron
Library – Eberswalde University Herzog & DeMeuron
GSW Headquarters Sauerbruch & Hutton
Herz-Jesu-Kirche Allmann Sattler Wappner (ASW)
Netherland Institute for Sound and Vision Nueteling Riedjik
Meta-rationalism Design trend which combines rational (regular) form with irrational/irregular 2D and 3D distorting influences, which subvert the regular reading of the form.
Traits of Meta-rationalism 1. Use of rational form (boxes) for major volume(s) 2. building envelopes which investigate patterns – pixelations - perforations – punctures 3. Overlays, cuts, voids, and subtractions which break up the major form. 4. transformational/distorted layers
Southwest Metal Offices Allmann Sattler Wappner
Prada Tokyo Herzog & De Meuron
De Young Museum Herzog & De Meuron
Elbe Philharmonic Herzog & De Meuron
Simmons Hall Steven Holl
The Orange Cube Jacob + McFarlane
Serpentine Gallery Toyo Ito
Sendai Mediatheque Toyo Ito
Seattle Public Library Rem Koolhaas (OMA--Office for Metropolitan Architecture)
CCTV Building Rem Koolhaas (OMA--Office for Metropolitan Architecture)
2008 Olympics A showcase for new meta-rationalist design. Two main buildings are… The Birdsnest and The Water Cube
Olympic Stadium--The Birdsnest Herzog & DeMeuron
Blobitecture Late 20th / 21st-century design movement in which all or part of the building has a bio-morphic, fluid, and curvaceous form(s) of such constructive complexity it requires the use of computer-aided visualization, design, and fabrication systems.
Fluidity acting against forces, smooth and TAUT
“Fred & Ginger building” Frank Gehry
Guggenheim Bilbao Frank Gehry
Walt Disney Concert Hall Frank Gehry
Selfridge Department Store Future Systems
Kunsthaus Graz Cook/Fournier
New Milan Trade Fair Massimilano Fuksas
Ordos Museum MAD
BMW Welt Coop Himmelbau
Mercedes Benz Museum UN Studio
Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre Zaha Hadid
Cooper Union Building Morphosis
BMW Plant Central Building Zaha Hadid
Mid-Century Modernism period post-WWII to Vietnam War (1945-1965), characterized by the evolution of the International Style into an optimistic, futuristic approach to form and material.
Traits of Mid-Century Modernism 1.Freedom from gravity 2.Exploration of new materials and processes 3.Fluid and rounded forms 4.Celebration of scientific discoveries/technology 5.Openness to exterior landscape 6. Bold, abstract patterns and vibrant, impure colors
Utopian Communalism design mega-structures which consolidate urban functions into dense architectural structures based on natural systems, and which promote communal, sustainable ways of living.
Traits of Utopian Communalism 1. Hi-tech or mixed-tech consolidated communities based on communal government 2. Megastructures 3. Technology/machinery influenced by nature 4. Use of repetitive cellular elements with varied connectivities 5. Build on sites otherwise unused
Béton Brut Architectural concrete left unfinished or roughly-finished after pouring and left exposed visually. The imprint of the wood or plywood forms used for pouring is usually present on the final surface.
Traits of Brutalism 1. Use of béton brut - concrete massing 2. Boxy, horizontal forms 3. Top-heavy massing 4. Fenestration which is repetitively punched or striated
Rationalism architecture is rooted in the timeless archetypes of human building, common to all cultures and times.
Traits of Rationalism 1. Pure, platonic shapes, volumes, and voids 2. Organizational systems which impart order and stability 3. Load-bearing mass (or appearance of)
Post Modernism It reveled in being artificial and theatrical, with columns or arches supporting nothing, pumped-up cornices and weighty-looking rustication that sounded hollow when you tapped it.
Traits of Post-Modernism 1.Blending of Modernism with ornament 2.elements that have been exaggerated, flattened 3.Mixture of references from different sources 4.Exaggerated frontality of main facade 5.Contrasting forms with manner of production 6. Playfulness
Pop Art & Architecture celebrates popular culture through appropriation of mass/consumer imagery, celebrity, and media
Traits of Pop Art & Architecture 1. Use of over-scaled elements. 2. Use of ‘novelty’ or ‘gimmick’ humorous elements. 3.Use of bold form and simple, bright colors and patterns. 4. abandons materiality in favor of methods of production/representation that reduce reality
Super-Modernism aspire to impact the civic space with primal size and clean detailing which de-materializes the small scale in favor of the imposing & enigmatic
Super-Modernism 1)Large scale works of civic impact 2)Simple forms 3)Materials : steel structure and glass skin. 4)Visual detail minimized to enhance scalar impact 5)Structure: de-emphasized by hiding/shrinking, or over-emphasized by externally over-scaling
Culver City, CA As part of creative financing, Smith convinces Culver City to allow innovative architecture as counting towards the “2-percent-for-art” allowance, making the projects viable.
Leon Max Showroom Morphosis
Familian House Frank Gehry
Nunotani Office Building Peter Eisenman
Common Southern Vernacular Dogtrot House & Shotgun House
The New Palladians Loose group of British Neo-classicists who advocate architecture rooted in 16th-19th century styles:Robert Adam Julian Bicknell Leon Krier George Saumarez Smith Quinlan Terry
Henbury Rotunda Julian Bicknell
The Barnes Foundation Williams & Tsien
Conduitity A Caldwell-made-up term to describe continuous volumetric forms which nestle and run parallel, similar to installed electrical conduit runs.
Pierre Vives Zaha Hadid
Created by: ajm033