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Final Exam for Micro

organisms that require oxygen to live. oxygen needed, grow at the top obligate aerobes
a bacterium that grows below ph4. tolerant to acid acidophiles
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (h+) and one or more negative ions acids
a disease in which symptoms develop rapidly but last for only a short day acute disease
the ability obtained during the life of the individual, to produce specific antibodies and t cells adaptive (specific) immunity
a substance added to a vaccine to increase its effectiveness adjuvants
a complex polysaccharide derived from a marine alga and used as a solidifing agent in culture media agar
an organic acid containing an amino group and a carboxyl group. in alpha-amino acids the amino and carboxyl groups are attached to the same carbon atom called the alpha carbon amino acid
all synthesis reactions in a living organism; the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones anabolism
an ion with a negative charge anion
an antimicrobial agent, usually produced naturally by a bacterium or fungus antibiotic
the 3 nucleotides by which a tRNA recognizes an mRNA codon anticodon
any substance that causes antibody formation; also called immunogen antigens
the natural programmed death of a cell; the residual fragments are disposed of by phagocytosis apoptosis
domain of prokaryotic cells lacking peptidoglycan; one of the three domain archaea
the absence of contamination by unwanted organisms asepsis
laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination aseptic technique
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom atomic number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom atomic weight
the smallest unit of matter that can enter into a chemical reaction atoms
1. any rod shaped bacterium. bacillus
domain of prokaryotic organism, characterized by peptidoglycan cell walls bacteria
the scientific study of prokaryotes, including bacteria and archaea bacteriology
the arrangement of nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids based on hydrogen bonding; in DNA base pairs are A-T and G-C; in RNA A-U and G-C base pairs
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (oh-) and one or more positive ions bases
the system of having two names (genus & specific epithet) for each organism; also called scientific nomenclature binomial nomenclature
a substance capable of killing microorganisms biocide
the theory that living cells arise only from preexisting cells biogenesis
the industrial application of microorganism, cells, or cell components to make a useful product biotechnology
an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the hydrogen and oxygen present in a 2:1 ratio; carbohydrates include starches, sugars, and cellulose carbohydrate
all decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones catabolism
an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide 2H O = 2H O+O 2 2 2 2 catalase
a positively charged ion cation
an attraction force between atoms forming a molecule chemical bond
the energy of a chemical reaction chemical energy
the process of making or breaking bonds between atoms chemical reaction
the science of the interactions between atoms and molecules chemistry
treatment of disease with chemical substance chemotherapy
the organelle that performs photosynthesis in photoautotrophic eukaryotes chloroplast
a relatively short cellular projection from some eukaryotic cells, composed of nine pairs plus two microtubules cilia
a spherical or ovoid bacterium cocci
a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that specifies the insertion of an amino acid into a polypeptide codons
a symbiotic relationship in which two organisms live in association and one is benefited while the other is neither benefited nor harmed commensalisms
any disease that can be spread from one host to another communicable disease
a chemical that competes with the normal substance for the active site of an enzyme competitive inhibitor
DNA made in vitro from an mRNA template complementary DNA (cDNA)
a substance composed of two or more different chemical elements compound
the process by which a portion of one chromosome is exchanged with a portion of another chromosome crossing over
microorganisms that grow and multiply in a container of culture medium culture
in a prokaryotic cell, everything inside the plasme mumbrane; in a eukaryotic cell, everything inside the plasma membrane and external in the nucleus cytoplasm
the fluid portion of cytoplasm cytosol
a chemical reaction in which bonds are broken to produce smaller parts from a large molecule decomposition reaction
a stain that distinguishes objects on the basis of reactions to the staining procedure differential stain
the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration diffusion
an abnormal state in which part or all of the body is not properly adjusted or is incapable of performing normal function; any change from a state of health disease
any treatment used on inanimate objects to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms; a chemical used is called a disinfectant disinfection
the nucleic acid of genetic material in all cells and some viruses double strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a taxonomic classification based on rRNA sequences; above the kingdom level domain
a negatively charged particle in motion around the nucleus of an atom electron
a new or changing disease that is increasing or has the potential to increase in incidence in the near future. emerging ifectious disease (EID)
a molecule that catalyzes biochemical reactions in a living organism, usually a protein enzyme
a temporary union of an enzyme and its substrate enzyme substrate complex
the study of the cause of a disease etiology
all eukaryotes (animal, plants, fungi, and protists); membrane of the domain eukarya eukarya
a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus eukaryote
a region of a eukaryotic chromosome that encodes a protein exon
an organism that can grow with or without molecular oxygen (O ) ( 2) facultative anaerobe
inhibition of an enzyme in a particular pathway by the accumulation of the end-product of the pathway; also called en-product ingibition feedback inhibition
the enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation, and O2 is not required fermentation
a thin appendage from the surface of a cell; used for cellular locomotion; composed of flagellin in prokaryotic cells, composed of 9+2 microtubules in eukaryotic cells. flagella
an organism that belongs to the kingdom fungi; a eukaryotic absorptive chemoheterotroph fungi
treating a disease by replacing abnormal genes gene therapy
a segment of DNA (a sequence of nucleotides in DNA) encoding a functional product genes
manufacturing and manipulating genetic material in vitro genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology rDNA)
one complete copy of the genetic information in a cell genome
the study of genes and their function genomics
the genetic make-up of an organism. the genes inside genotype
the first name of the scientific name (binomial); the taxon between family and species genus
bacteria that lose the crystal violet color after decolorizing by alcohol; gram negactive is pink gram negative
bacteria that retain the crystal violet color after decolorizing by alcohol; gram postive is purple gram positive
a protein associated with DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes histones
the ability obtained during the life of the individual, to produce specific antibodies and T cells immunity (adaptive immunity)
the growth of microorganisms in the body. invasion of the body infection
host defense that afford protection against any kind of pathogen innate (nonspecific) immunity
a small molecule that does not contain carbon and hydrogen inorganic compound
a specific group of cytokines interferon
a region in a eukaryotic gene that does not code for a protein or mRNA introns
a negatively or positively charged atom or group of atoms ions
one or two molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures isomers
a form of a chemical element in which the number of neutrons in the nucleus is different from the other forms of the element isotopes
a taxonomic classification between domain and phyhem kingdom
during DNA replication, the daughter strand that is synthesized discontinuously. step behind lagging strand
during DNA replication, the daughter strand that is synthesized continuously. step ahead leading strand
a non-water soluble organic molecule, including triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols lipids
an organelle containing disgestive enzymes lysosome
an organism that grows between about 10c and 50c; a moderate temperature- loving microbe mesophiles
the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell metabolism
a living organism to small to be seen with the naked eye; includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microscopic alfae; also includes viruses microorganisms
an organelle containing krebs cycle enzymes and the electrom transport chain mitochondria
the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms making up a molecule molecular weight
a combination of atoms forming a specific chemical compound molecule
the number of people affected by a disease in a given period of time in relation to the total population morbidity rate
a substance added to a staining solution to make it stain more intensely mordant
the number of deaths resulting from a disease in a given period of time in relation to the total population mortality rate
the type of RNA molecule that directs the incorporation of amino acids into proteins messenger RNA (mRNA)
an agent in the environment that brings about mutations mutagen
a type of symbiosis in which both organisms or populations are benefited. mutualism
the scientific study of fungi mycology
an uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom neutrons
an inhibitory chemical that does not compete with the substrate for an enzyme's active site noncompetitive inhibitor
the microorganism that colonize a host without causing disease; also called normal flora normal microbiota
an infection that develops during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at the time the patient was admitted nosocomial infection
a disease that physicians must report to the u.s. public health service; also call reportable disease. notifiable disease
a compound consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate nucleotide
1. the part of an atom consisting of the protons and neutons. 2. the part of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic material nucleus
in a compound light microscope, the lenses closet to the specimen objective lenses
bacteria that are unable to use molecular oxygen for energy-yielding reaction. oxygen not needed, grow at the bottom obligate anaerobes
in a compound light microscope, the lens closet to the viewer; also called the eyepiece ocular lens
a microorganism that does not ordinarily cause a disease but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances opportunistic pathogen
a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen organic compounds
the net movement of solvent molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration osmosis
an epidemic that occurs worldwide pandemic disease
a symbiotic relationship in which one organis (the parasite) exploits another (the host) without providing any benefit in return parasitism
the scientific study of parasitic protozoa and worms parasitology
the process of mild heating to kill particular spoilage microorganisms or pathogens pasteurization
a disease-causing organism pathogenic (pathogen)
a bond joining the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of a second amino acid witht the loss of a water molecule peptide bond
organelles that oxidizes amino acids, fatty acids, and alcohol peroxisome
the external manifestations of an organism's genotype or genetic make-up. physical appearence phebotype
an appendage on a bacterial cell used for conjugation and glidig motility pili
a cell that an activated B cell differentiates into; plasma cells manufacture specific antibodies plasma cell
1. a chain of amino acids 2. a group of antibiotics polypeptides
antibody prodcution in response to the first contact with an antigen primary immune response
an acute infection that causes the initial illness primary infection
an infections agent consisting of a self-replicating protein; with no detectable nucleic acids prions
microbes inoculated into a host to occupy a niche and prevent growth of pathogens probiotics
a cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope prokaryote
a large molecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (and sulfur); some proteins have a helical structure and others are pleated sheets protein
a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom proton
an organism that grows best at about 15c and does not grow about 20c; a cold loving microbe psychrophile
the class of a nucleic acid bases that include adeniue and guanine purines
the class of nucleic acid bases that includes uracil, thymine, and cytosine pyrimidines
a DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from two different sources recombinant DNA (rDNA)
the ability to distinguish fine detail with a magnifying instrument; also called resolving power resolution
a virus that has RNA for a nucleus retrovirus
an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; an enzyme that synthesizes a complentary DNA from an RNA template reverse transcription
the site of protein synthesis in a cellm composed of RNA and protein ribosome
endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes on its surface rough er
the removal of microbes from eating utensils and food preparation areas sanitization
an infection caused by an opportunistic microbe after a primary infection has weakened the hosts defenses secondary infectin
the presence of a toxin or pathogenic organism in blood and tissue sepsis
a change due to a disease that a person can observe and measure. you can see signs
a method of staining microorganisms with a single basic dye simple stain
endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes smooth er
a substance dissolved in another substance solute
a dissolving medium solvent
the most specific level in the taxonomic hierarchy species
the second or species name in a scientific binomial specific epithet
a helical or corkscrew-shaped bacterium spirillum
cocci in a grapelike cluster or broad sheet staphylococcus
free of microorganisms sterile
the removal of all microorganisms including endospores sterilization
1. cocci the remain attached in chains after cell divison 2. when written as a genus, refers to gram-positive, catalase-negative bacteria streptococcus
any compound with which an enzyme reacts substrates
the lack of resistance to a disease susceptibility
the living together of two different organisms or population symbiosis
a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of a disease. cant see just feel symptoms
a specific group of signs or symptoms that accompany a disease syndrome
a chemical reaction in which two or more atoms combine to form a new, large molecule synthesis reaction
an organism whose optimum growth temperature is between 50c and 60c; a heat loving microbe thermophile
a chlorophyll-containing membrance in a chlorplast. a bacterial thylakoid is also known as a chromatophore thylakoids
the magnification of a microscopic specimen, determined by multiplying the oculat lens magnification by the objective lens magnification total magnification
the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template transcription
1. process in which genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution 2. the changing of a normal cell into a cancerous cell transformation
the microorganisms that are present in an animal for a short time without causing a disease transient microbiota
the use of mRNA as a template in the synthesis of protein translation
the process of conferring immunity by administering a vaccine; also called immunization vaccination
a preparation of killed, inactivated, or attenuated microorganisms or toxoids to induce artificially acquired active immunity vaccine
an intracellular inclusion, in eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a plasma membrane; in prokaryotic cells, surrounded by a proteinaceous membrane vacuoles
1. a small serum-filled elevation of the skin. vesicles
infectious RNA viroids
the scientific study of viruses virology
the degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism virulence
a submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent consisting of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat virus
Created by: laurene