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Modern Era

WGU Foundations of Teaching

TermDefinition, etc.
Testing Movement begin in early 1900s. G. Stanley Hall and others believed that students' intellectual capacities measured in testing/laboratory situations were significant in every day life = set stage for intelligence/standardized testing.
The Smith-Lever Act (1914) partnership between U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and land-grant universities to provide funding for adult training in farming, home ec. and vocational ed.
Pierce v. Society of Sisters (1925) U.S. Supreme Court ruled an Oregon law requiring students to attend public school was unconstitutional = school choice.
Works Progress Administration (WPA) - 1935 Provided economic relief during the Great Depression and training to adult males to prepare them for work in the needed sectors.
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) - 1944 Provided for college/vocational ed. for returning WWII veterans.
Life Adjustment Movement - 1950s High schools expected to teach "life skills" - especially for students not planning to attend post high school training/education.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka - 1954 U.S. Supreme Court rules that separate facilities for Black and White students are inherently unequal = called for integration of schools.
National Defense Act (NDEA) - 1958 Passed in response to the Russian launch of Sputnik satellite; appropriated federal funds to improve education in areas considered crucial to national defense/security: math, foreign language, and science.
manpower Development and Training Act - 1962 mandated funding to educate thousands of people unemployed because of automation/technological advances so they would be marketable in these fields.
Job Corps Established - 1964 A no-cost educational/vocational training program administered by the U.S. Dept. of labor that helps people ages 16 - 24 get a better job, make more money, and take control of their lives. Part of the Economic Opportunity Act.
Project Head Start - 1964 A federal compensatory preschool education program created to help disadvantaged 3 and 4 year old students enter elementary school "ready to learn.'
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) - 1965 part of Pres. Johnson's "War on Poverty.' Provides funding for special programs for children of low-income families in grades k through 12. has been reauthorized by Congress every 5 years since its inception.
Title I (Chapter I) Created under ESEA; provides financial assistance to local educational agencies serving areas with concentrations of children from low-income families for compensatory programs
Serrano v. Priest (1971) CA State Supreme Court ruled that the level of educational opportunities available to students may not depend on the taxable wealth of a school district, but on the taxable wealth of the state as a whole (Equal Protection Clause).
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) Supreme Court established the "Lemon test", detailing requirements for legislation concerning religion. 3 prongs:(1) serves a legitimate secular purpose; (2) neither advances/inhibits religion; (3) doesn't result in gov. entanglement with religion.
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez - 1973 Supreme Court ruled that reliance on property taxes to fund public schools does not violate Equal Protection Clause, even if it causes inter-district expenditure disparities.
Affirmative Action Policies/Procedures designed to overcome past racial, gender, and disability discrimination. Legal basis for: Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) and IDEA (1991).
"A Nation at Risk" - 1983 National Commission on Excellence in education report; called for greater federal support of education because the nation was threatened by "a rising tide of mediocrity: - calls for educational reform based on the development of standards-based curricula.
Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994 Set goals for standards-based education reform, many of which are based on the principles of outcomes-based education. Identifies "world-class" academic standards to measure student progress/provide support students may need to meet these standards.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 Reauthorized a number of federal programs aimed at improving the performance of U.S. schools by increasing the standards of accountability for states, districts, and schools. 4 principles accountability for results, more choices for parents, greater local
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs receiving federal financial assistance (like schools).
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) - 1975 Requires all schools receiving federal funds to provide equal access to education for children whith physical and mental disabilities.
Gifted and Talented Act - 1978 Schools required to provide services and activities to meet the needs of students identified as being gifted/talented.
Americans with Disabilities Act - 1990 A wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability; covers employment, transportation, building accessibility, transportation, etc.
Individuals with Disabilities Act - 1990 Governs how states/public agencies provide early early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities from birth to 21 years of age.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits discrimintaion against people on the basis of race, colr, or national origin in all institutions receiving federal funds (including schools).
Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) of 1974 Prohibits specific discriminatory conduct, including segregating students, faculty, and staff on the basis of race, color or national origin; requires districts to find ways to overcome student's language barriers = equal participation in education
Bilingual Education Act of 1968 (Title VII of ESEA) provided schools with federal funds to establish educational programs for students w/ limited English - did not require bilingual ed.
Lau v. Nichols (1974) U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the lack of linguistically-appropriate accommodations denied Chines-American students equal educational opportunities on the basis of their ethnicity.
Title IX (Education Amendment of 1972) federal law prohibiting sex discrimination against students & employees of educational institutions
Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Title IX prohibits the sexual harassment of students, and schools found in violation of this are subject to monetary damages.
mary M. v. No. Lawrence Community School Corp. (1997) Supreme Court ruled that students can seek monetary damages from school districts for gender discrimination in the form of sexual harassment by school employees.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 (a.k.a. Buckley Amendment) Provides parents with the right to view their child's school records and challenge information they believe is inaccurate. These rights transfer to the student when she turns 19.
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the suspension of 3 students for wearing black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War was a violation of the students' First and Fourteenth amendment rights = the students did not disrupt the learning process.
Goss v. Lopez (1975) Federal court ruled that students must be given a "hearing" before they can be suspended (deprived of an education) = Fourteenth amendment.
New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) U.S. Supreme Court upheld legality of a search of a purse belonging to a student caught smoking in the school bathroom. School officials had "probable cause" so they didn't violate Fourth amendment.
Ray v. School District of DeSoto County (1987) Florida district court ruled that 3 hemophiliac brothers with AIDS should be allowed to attend school as long as special safeguards are in place.
Engle vs. Vitale Supreme Court ruled against school prayer in New York
Abington v. Schempp Supreme Court tuled against Bible reading
Created by: gdglgrl