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Postural final

QuestionAnswer
What makes up 60% of the normal gait cycle? Stance phase
Most problems of gait become apparent when? weight bearing, stance phase
What are the four steps of the stance phase of gait? 1. heel strike, 2. foot flat, 3. midstance, 4. push-off (toe-off)
What makes up 40% of the normal gait cycle? swing phase
What are the three steps of swing phase? 1. acceleration, 2. midswing, 3. deceleration
What is the measurement of the width of the base? 2-4 inches heel to heel
Center of gravity should be no more than what? no more than 2 inches of vertical oscillation
What is needed during all phases of stance to maintain center of gravity (except heel strike)? knee flexion
How much do the pelvis and trunk shift laterally to the wt bearing side? 1 inch
What is the average length of step? 15 inches
What is a cadence? 90-120 steps/minute
Pelvis rotation during swing phase: ___ degrees aroud opposite hip in stance 40 degrees
If a pt has a problem, during stance what is usually seen? antalgic gait
If a pt has a heel spur what might their gait look like pt may hop onto involved foot to avoid heel strike
if a pt has weak quads, or fusion what might their gait oresent as? normally extended, (unstable knee gait)
Pt may have an issue in midstance on their foot d/t? pain from arthritic changes, calluses over matatarsal heads, corns on dorsum of toes. Wt is borne equally over all aspects of ft.
midstance knee issue weak quads, unstable knee - hold knee in bent position
hip issues in midstance glut med lurch, or glut max lurch
Foot issues with push-off hallux rigidus, metatarsalgia (callosities with dropped arch) - push off from lat side of forefoot (corns on 4th and 5th toes, shoe crease)
issues with knee during push off calcaneal gait (flat-footed gait)
In acceleration what is needed to clear foot off ground? dorsiflexor activity
What is maximum knee flexion needed to clear the ground in acceleration? 65 degrees of knee flexion
What exaggerates pelvic thrust anteriorly in acceleration? weak quads
What are two problems with midswing? weak ankle dorsiflexors: toe scrape, steppage gait
What is needed in deceleration for a smooth heel strike? eccentric hamstring contraction for controlled smooth heel strike
What will weak hams cause? harsh heel strike, heel pad thickening, knee hyperextension (back knee gait)
what is the avg angle of the cervical curve? 40 degrees
what is the min and max angle of the cerv curve? min is 35 and max is 45
What is the average jochumsen cerv lordosis measurement? 3-8 mm
what is the min and max jochumsen cerv lordosis measurements? min is 1 mm and max is 9 mm
what is the avg depth of the cerv curve? 12 mm
what is the min and max depth of the cerv curve? 7 is min 17 is max
what is the avg drexler cerv lordosis number? 40 degrees
what is the min and max drexler cerv lordosis? 16 is min and max is 60
Hyperlordosis of cerv spine may lead to? and is associated with what? may lead to facet jamming, and is associtaed with kyphotic t-spine
What is a swan neck deformity of the c-spine? what is is secondary to? complete reversal of lordosis, secondary to surgical instability
What is a red flag for ligament instability in the c-spine? acute angular kyphosis
What is the cervical gravity line? plumb line measurement from the apex of the dens which should intersect c7 body
In forward head cariage what happens to the cerv gravity line? falls way anterior to the c7 body
What four things alter T-spine kyphosis? compression fxs, osteoporosis, disc degen, scheuermanns dz (rusty)
What is the normal lumbar lordosis? 50-60 degrees
what is the normal lumbosacral angle? 26-57 degrees
What are two other names for lumbosacral angle? Fergusons angle, and sacral base angle
what is the mean for lumbosarcral angle? 41 degrees
What causes overpronation during one legged standing? tib anterior weakness
what causes LE external rotation? overactive piriformis, adductor weakness
What causes pelvis unlevelving during one legged standing tests, leg length and hip abduction tests? glut med weakness, QL/TFL hypertonicity
what causes an anterior pelvic tilt? glut max weakness, ES and or iliopsoas hypertonicity
What causes thoracolumbar hypertrophy? glut max/multifidius, abdomincal weakness.
What are you checking quality wise with one leg standing test? exvessive LE motion, pelvis/shoulder unleveling, overall posture
What are correlations with one leg standing test? hip abduction test, over-pronation/mid-stance during gait
What is a tx for one leg standing test sensory motor training, glut med facilitation
What are you checking quality wise with the squat strength/coordination test? heel rise, knee varus/valgus, loss of lordosis/stooped position, poor balance
What are correlations with squat test? endurance of fluts/quads, hip extension/back extension test
what is advice to give someone for squat test? maintain lordosis while lifting
what are manipulations associtaed with squat test? foot, ankle, hip, si
what should be stretched with squat test? hamstrings, gastro-soleus, adductors
what are some coordination/endurance exercises for squat test? bridging, squatting, lunging
What are you checking the quality of with the trunk flexion test? heel raise, and lumbar spine hyperextension
What are
what is the avg angle of the cervical curve? 40 degrees
what is the min and max angle of the cerv curve? min is 35 and max is 45
What is the average jochumsen cerv lordosis measurement? 3-8 mm
what is the min and max jochumsen cerv lordosis measurements? min is 1 mm and max is 9 mm
what is the avg depth of the cerv curve? 12 mm
what is the min and max depth of the cerv curve? 7 is min 17 is max
what is the avg drexler cerv lordosis number? 40 degrees
what is the min and max drexler cerv lordosis? 16 is min and max is 60
Hyperlordosis of cerv spine may lead to? and is associated with what? may lead to facet jamming, and is associtaed with kyphotic t-spine
What is a swan neck deformity of the c-spine? what is is secondary to? complete reversal of lordosis, secondary to surgical instability
What is a red flag for ligament instability in the c-spine? acute angular kyphosis
What is the cervical gravity line? plumb line measurement from the apex of the dens which should intersect c7 body
In forward head cariage what happens to the cerv gravity line? falls way anterior to the c7 body
What four things alter T-spine kyphosis? compression fxs, osteoporosis, disc degen, scheuermanns dz (rusty)
What is the normal lumbar lordosis? 50-60 degrees
what is the normal lumbosacral angle? 26-57 degrees
What are two other names for lumbosacral angle? Fergusons angle, and sacral base angle
what is the mean for lumbosarcral angle? 41 degrees
What causes overpronation during one legged standing? tib anterior weakness
what causes LE external rotation? overactive piriformis, adductor weakness
What causes pelvis unlevelving during one legged standing tests, leg length and hip abduction tests? glut med weakness, QL/TFL hypertonicity
what causes an anterior pelvic tilt? glut max weakness, ES and or iliopsoas hypertonicity
What causes thoracolumbar hypertrophy? glut max/multifidius, abdomincal weakness.
What are you checking quality wise with one leg standing test? exvessive LE motion, pelvis/shoulder unleveling, overall posture
What are correlations with one leg standing test? hip abduction test, over-pronation/mid-stance during gait
What is a tx for one leg standing test sensory motor training, glut med facilitation
What are you checking quality wise with the squat strength/coordination test? heel rise, knee varus/valgus, loss of lordosis/stooped position, poor balance
What are correlations with squat test? endurance of fluts/quads, hip extension/back extension test
what is advice to give someone for squat test? maintain lordosis while lifting
what are manipulations associtaed with squat test? foot, ankle, hip, si
what should be stretched with squat test? hamstrings, gastro-soleus, adductors
what are some coordination/endurance exercises for squat test? bridging, squatting, lunging
What are you checking the quality of with the trunk flexion test? heel raise, and lumbar spine hyperextension
What are correlations with trunk flexion test inhibited rect ab, overative T/L, paraspinals, iliopsoas, repeated trunk flexion curl test, ant pelvic tilt
Whats some advice for trunk flex test? abdomincal co-contraction during lifting
what is a manipulation for trunk flexion test? l-spine
what should be stretched with trunk flexion test? iliopsoas, ES
what are some coordination/endurance exercises for trunk flex test? pelvic tilts, dead bugs, respiration training
Hip extension tests quality of? l-spine hyperextension, T/L mm contraction, glut max quiet, ant pelvic tilt, knee flexion, trunk/shouldert movt
what are correlations with hip exten test? poor prox stability, facet overload, squat/back extensor tests, toe off during gait
advice with hip ext test? proper lifting tech, arising from sitting, gait re-education
what is a manipulation with hip ext test? hip, LS, TL junc, Si, fib head, feet
what should be stretched with hip ext test? ilipsoas, rect fem, hamstrings, ES
coordination exercises for hip ext? pelvis tilting, bridges, rocker board, squats, lunges
qualities of what with hip abduction test? limited ROM, hip hiking, trunk rotation, overactive adductors, QL, TFL pelvis unleveling, one leg standing
advice for hip abduction test? gait re-education
manipulation with hip abduct test? hip, LS, si, l2-l3, feet
stretches for hip abduct test? piriformis, adductors, QL, tfl, ilipsoas
coordination/endurance exercises for hip abduct test? one leg bridge, leg abductions, lunges, rocker board
what are some other factors associated withhip abduct test? leg length in=, hyperpronation syndrome
qualities of back extension test? shaking, loses horizontal posture
coreelations of static back ext test? endurance of multifidi, gluts, hams
advice for static back est? lifting
manipulation with static back ext? hip joint extension, TL, lumbar spine
stretches for static back ext? iliopsoas, ES
coordination for static back ext? quadruped cross crawl, superman (that hoe).
Winged scap dt? weak serratus ant, hyperactive rhomboids
elevated shoulder dt? inhib lower traps/s. ant, hyperactive upper trap/l. scap
forward head posture d/t? inhib deep neck flexors, hyperactive scm/suboccipitals
round shoulders/protracted scap dt? weak mid traps, hypertonic pecs
internally rotated arms dt? weak mid traps, hypertonic pecs and lat dorsi
suboccipital/upper trap hypertonicity if greater standing may be due to? forward drawn pelvic posture (weak glut max, short psoas, hypermobile LS
qualities of arm abduction test? hiking of shoulder before 60 degrees abduction, primary GH movt
correlations with arm abduction test? inhibit lower traps/s, antm hyperactive upper trap/l. scap, elevated shoulder
advice with arm abduction test? proper breathing, brugger, workstation, scap stabilixation during exercise (rows, pull downs, pec decs)
manipulation with arm abdcution test? AC, SC, ct junc
stretches for arm abduction test? upper trap, l scap, pecs, subscap, l dorsi
facilitation exercises for arm abduct test? abdomincal resp, scap depression
qualities of neck felxion test? jull modifications, head up and down, chin jutting, difficult recovery
correlations of neck flex test inhib deep neck flexors, hyperactive scm, suboccipital, palpations FHP FPP, round shoulders
advice for neck flex test chin leadings, proper breathing, bruggers, glasses
manipulation of neck flex test c0-c1, ct, upper ribs
stretches for neck flex test scalenes, suboccipitals
facilitation exercises for neck flex test abdominal resp, deep neck flexors
quality of push up test, 2 positions Toes: scap - winging, retraction elevation... Same for all fours
correlations of push up test weak s. ant, overactive rhomboids, upper trap, l scap
advice for push up test avoid slumped positions
manipulation for push up test upper t spine in extension
stretches for push up test upper traps, l scap, pecs
facilitation exercises for push up test push up with plus, serratus punches
qualities of resp test done standing, seated, or supine: belly protrusion, horizontal expansion, clavicle, shoulder elevation
correlations with resp test overactivity of scalenes and upper trap
advice for resp test avoid slumped positions
manipulation for resp test ribs 1-4 into depression
stretches for resp test upper traps, l scap, pecs, scalenes
facilitation exercises for resp test diaphragm, ygoa
Created by: margaretrhager on 2012-04-07



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