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Spiritual Midwifery

Spiritual Midwifery - by Ina May Gaskin

QuestionAnswer
Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein
Inguinal canal "A passage in the lower anterior abdominal wall which in the male allows passage of the spermatic cord and in the female contains the round ligament."
What does the yolk sac do? "...a membrane outside the embryo that is connected by a tube though the umbilical opening to the embryo's midgut. The yolk sac serves as an early site for the formation of blood and in time is incorporated into the primitive gut of the embryo."
Edema An accumulation of fluids under the skin.
Toxemic symptoms Pre-eclampsia & Eclampsia are the 2 types of toxemia. Symptoms include: high blood pressure, edema, protein in the urine.
Prolapsed Cord - How would I identify it? Irregular heart beat in baby, confirm by vaginal exam. You may see the cord, unless the prolapse is hidden. Otherwise continued fetal distress will warrant turning to a doctor.
Hypoxia Oxygen Deprivation
Mentum Chin (As in, face-first mentum anterior position.)
Fibroid tumors tumors on the uterus, usually benign. (As in, can be responsible for a transverse lie.)
Perinatal "Pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth. Depending on the definition, it starts at the 20th to 28th week of gestation and ends 1 to 4 weeks after birth."
Corpus Luteum It is a mass in the ovary that forms and degenerates in the course of the menstrual cycle, unless an egg is fertilized in which case it remains through the pregnancy and is responsible for secreting progesterone & estrogens.
Megaloblast abnormally large red blood cell resulting from vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency (as in, megaloblastic anemia)
Aplastic refers to the inability of the body to produce some kind of cells.
Aplastic anemia where bone marrow doesn't produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood. Has a lack of all cell types, not just red.
hemolysis destruction of red blood cells.
peptic ulcer ulcer in the gastrointestinal tract
colitis inflammation of the colon
ulcerative colitis colitis with ulcers
hernia protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into an adjacent area.
inguinal hernia protrusion of abdominal cavity contents into inguinal canal
diaphragmatic hernia protrusion of abdominal cavity contents through a hole in the diaphragm
hydronephrosis swelling of a kidney due to a backup of urine resulting from some obstruction to the flow of urine.
cystitis inflammation/infection of bladder
pyelonephritis ascending UTI that has reached the pelvis of the kidney
Ectopic pregnancy Fertilized egg that is growing outside of the uterus.
Possible causes of ectopic pregnancy Unusually long and twisty fallopian tube, a condition such as inflammation which changes the chemical balance of the fallopian tubes, or an obstruction such as scar tissue.
Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy Vaginal bleeding starting by the 8th week of pregnancy. Sharp lower abdominal pain which may radiate into neck and shoulder, vaginal bleeding. If tube ruptures it can cause dizziness, fainting, and shock.
Treatment for ectopic pregnancy Immediate medical care is necessary. Contact a doctor. Usually treated with removal of the affected fallopian tube.
Three bones of the hipbones Ilium, ischium, and pubis
Symphysis pubis Joint made of cartilage between the bodies of the two pubic bones where they form the pubic arch.
Ischial tuberosity Lower portion of the ischium, the part you sit on.
Ischial spine A sharp projection just back & above the ischial tuberosity. Can be blunt or prominent (spiny.)
Sacrum Lies between ilia and forms the back of the pelvis. Composed of five fused vertebrae.
Sacral promontory The first of the five vertebrae of the sacrum. It varies in prominence and is significant in determining the size of the pelvic inlet.
Coccyx Four small fused vertebrae located below the sacrum.
Sacroiliac Joint Slightly moveable joint between sacrum and ilium.
Sacrococcygeal Joint Hinge between sacrum and coccyx which is slightly moveable in childbirth.
Diagonal conjugate From underside of pubic arch to the middle of the sacral promontory. Should measure about 12.5 cm.
Obstetric conjugate From sacral promontory to upper back side of symphysis pubis. Smallest front-to-back diameter that the baby's head must pass through. Should be about 11 cm.
Bituberous diameter Distance between ischial tuberosities. Should be 8 cm or more.
Obstetric Front-to-Back Diameter From bottom inner edge of pubic bone to sacrococcygeal joint.
Perimetrium Peritoneal membrane covering the outside of the uterus, except at its sides.
Myometrium Thick central layer of the uterus made up of three layers of muscle fibers. Outer muscles vertical, middle layer interlaced muscle fibers and blood vessels, inner layer circular.
Endometrium Mucus lining of uterus.. Many blood vessels, many tubular glands embedded.
Septate Uterus Has a septum dividing the inside of the uterus into two distinct parts.
Double Uterus Two uteri each with a distinct cervix. Birth canal may be divided in two, or there may be two separate birth canals.
Forked Uterus One cervix, but fundus divided into two parts.
Pelvic peritoneum Covering that hangs over the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Broad ligaments Peritoneal tissue covering the fallopian tubes.
Pelvic fascia Connective tissue between pelvic organs.
Transverse cervical ligaments Extend from cervix and birth canal to the side walls of the pelvis.
Uterosacral ligaments Extend from cervix, encircle rectum, attach to front of sacrum.
Pubocervical ligaments Extend from cervix, running beneath bladder and attaching to the pubic bones.
Round ligaments Extend from fundus, pass through inguinal canal and front abdominal wall, end in outer lips of vagina. Keep uterus in proper position.
Levator ani Muscles of the deep muscle layer which act as a sling from bones of pelvis and support pelvic organs. Pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and ischiococcygeus.
Pubococcygeus Part of the deep muscles of the levator ani. Comprised of pubovaginalis, puborectalis,a nd pubococcygeus proper.
Pubovaginalis Blend with muscles of urethral wall, loop around birth canal. Ends insert into birth canal and perineum.
Puborectalis Muscles which loop around internal and external anal sphincters and rectum.
Pubococcygeus proper Muscle which inserts into side margins of coccyx and into back side of pubic bone Works in combination with anal sphincter.
Engaging diameter of baby's head in vertex presentation Avg 9.5 cm
Engaging diameter of baby's head in partly flexed vertex presentation Avg 11 cm
Engaging diameter of baby's head in brow presentation Avg 13.5 cm
Engaging diameter of baby's head in face presentation Avg 9.5 cm
Normal fetal heart rate 120-160 bpm
Five signs in apgar scoring Heart rate, Respiratory effort, Muscle tone, Reflex irritability, and Color
Abdominal pregnancy An egg which grows in the abdominal cavity, rarely to term. Must be delivered surgically.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
Hydatidiform Mole Villi of chorion enlarge into cysts and grows in the uterus, absorbing the embryo.
Placenta previa Placenta that is set low in the uterus either covering the uterus completely or partially, or coming close to the cervix.
Apruptio placenta Seperation of placenta from uterine wall before the birth of the baby.
Polyhadramnios Too much amniotic fluid.
Pyloric Stenosis Congenital abnormality with a narrowing or abnormal thickness of pyloric sphincter. Causes projectile vomiting. Treated with relaxing medication, and sometimes surgery.
Closed duodenum Upper part of small intestine is closed, also called duodenal atresia. Baby vomits soon after birth and has distended abdomen. Surgically treated.
Closed esophagus Esophageal atresia. Upper end of esophagus ends in pouch instead of stomach. Often accompanied by polyhydramnios. Immediate operation for treatment.
Congenital heart disease Symptoms similar to respiratory distress.
Phenylketonuria PKU, metabolic abnormality which can lead to mental retardation. Treatment is management of diet.
Craniosynostosis Premature fusing of the sutures of the skull. Diagnosed by oddly shaped head and lack of soft spot. Treatment is surgery.
Spina bifida Abnormality of the spinal cord where cord is exposed and sometimes protruding.
Hydrocephalus Unusually large head because of increased cerebrospinal fluid in skull, putting pressure on brain.
Caput succedaneum Swelling of the head with edema in loose scalp tissues. Present at birth and subsides within day or so.
Cephalohematoma Swelling of the head where blood escapes between skull and membranes of the skull. Swelling cannot cross saggital suture. Subsides over several weeks.
Toxoplasmosis infection caused by parasite from eating undercooked meat or contact with cat feces. Causes severe congenital abnormalities and may cause fetal death or prematurity.
Created by: MzT on 2009-12-03



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