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Test 4 Micro

Final test in micro

What is urine normally? Sterile
What is the primary bacteria in the vagina Lactobacillus spp.
Lactobacillus spp. can produce lactic acid
What can lactobacillus spp. maintain? pH
lactobacillus inhibits most ______? microbes
Lactobacillus produces ____ which also inhibits _____. H202, growth
Estrogen promotes growth of? lactobacillus spp.
Candid albicans is found in what %? 10-25%
Pregnant and menopausal women =? high rate UTI.
Why do pregant women have a high rate of uti? because a decrease in estrogen
The male urethra is usually sterile, except microbes near external opening.
What is UTI usually triggered by? inflammation of urethra
What is a serious complication of UTI? The UTI can move to the kidneys
How many UTI are in the USA per year? 7 million and many are nosocomail.
what are many of the UTI due to? the proximity to the anus
this bacteria is prominent what am I? intestinal bacteria
what is the most common bacteria that will cause UTI. e.coli, & Psuedomonas spp.
what is cystitis? inflammation of urinary bladder
what is sign and symptom of cystitis? difficult, painful urination
you may have pyuria with this ______ and what is pyuria? Cystitis, pus in the urine
what is the main bug that causes cystitis? E.coli
What is the other main bug that can cause Cystitis? Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What is pyelonephritis? inflammation of one or both kidneys
what is pyelonephritis usually caused from? untreated cystitis
What is the main symptom for pyelonephritis pain in the back or flank pain
Pyelonephritis is usually a complication of the _______ UTI. ____% is _____, and can result in______. lower, 75, e.coli, bacteremia
If pyelonephritis is chronic it can cause formation of ________ and severe impairing function of the __________ scar tissue, kidneys
this is the most common notifiable disease in the US? Gonorrhea
what is the bug for gonorrhea? Nesseria gonorroeae
what is the percent and age group that is gets Gonorrhea? 60% and 15-24 years of age
Neisseria gonorroheae is a gram ____ _____. gram negative diplococci
Neisseria gonorroheae attaches the the epithelial cells by? fimbrie
Neisseria gonorroheae invades spaces between? columnar epi cells
Gonorrhea can also be found in? oral pharyngeal area, eyes, rectum, urethra, opening of cervix.
Gonorrhea can lead to_____ and _____ formation infalmmation and pus
Infection rate from single exposure in men for gonorrhea is? 20-35%
infection rate from single exposure in women for gonorrhea is? 60-90%
Gonorrhea symptoms differ in men and women in men what is the symptoms? painful urination, pus formation, 80% show symptoms after just a few days, and common comlication is urethritis.
what is the symptoms of Gonorrhea in women? more insidious, only in cervix which makes few aware of infection.
what happens later in the disease of gonorrhea in women if left undiagnosed? abdominal pain and Pelvic inflammatory disease
If gonorrhea is untreated it can? disseminate adn become septic
what is it called when gonorrhea is found in infant eyes during birht? opthalmia neonatorum
Gonorrhea is transmitted at any point of ___ ____ and has no _______. sexual contact, adaptive immunity
How do you diagnosis gonorrhea in men Gram (-) diplococci (GNDC) in pus from urethra. diplococci within the wbc, and culture on the Thayer martin media which increases in CO2 is needed
infants recieve this after birth silver nitrate
what is NGU? Nongonococcal Urethritis (CLAP)
Nongonococcal urethritis is caused by? Chlamydia trachomatis
this is 5x more prevalent in women. Nongonococcal urethritis
in women Nongonococcal urethritis may cause? (PID) pelvic inflammotory disease
nongonococcal urethritis may infect infants during birth by causing? eye infection or pneumonia
70% of men and 50% of women may be asymptomatic with this diseases what am I? Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
symptoms of NGU include painful urination, and watery discharge
how do you diagnose NGU? amplified probe (CTNG probe) can use urine but swabs work best.
what does CTNG stand for? Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorroheae
What does PID stand for? Pelvic inflammatory disease
what is PID? extensive bacterial infection in female pelvic organs.
these three can cause PID what are they? gonorrhea, chlamydia & trichanella
PID may cause salpingitis what is salpingitis? infalmmation of fallopian tubes
Salpingitis may cause scarring and leads to sterility
if the uterine tube is blocked due to PID could cause ectopic pregnancy
how do you diagnosis PID? Signs and Symptoms and Culture
what is Syphilis caused by? Treponema pallidium
Treponema pallidium is very ____ & tightly _____. it is also difficult to _____. thin, coiled, stain
treponema pallidium produces several lipoproteins
syphilis induces ______ response and leads to _____ distruction. inflammatory, tissue
In syphilis the treponema pallidium immediately enters the blood stream
Syphilis can invade deep tissue
infection with syphilis can result in significant immunity
syphilis is transmitted by sexual contact
in the primary stage of syphilis a small hard chancre at infection site comes about when does this happen. 10-90 days after exposure
Painless exudate of serum at center, lesion disappears, and bacteria enters bloodstream and lymph system what stage of syphilis am I? Primary stage of syphilis
this rash is especially seen on plams and soles what bug is this associated with Syphilis
several wekks after primary, symptoms tend to resolve in 3 weeks, and skini rash may appear what stage of syphilis am I secondary stage
in this stage of syphilis you have loss of patches of hair, and may have neurological symptoms and is considered a mild stage what stage am I. Secondary stage
in this stage od syphilis you have no symptoms, and after 2-4 years your not infective and majority of cases don't progress beyond latency . latent period
you may still pass this disease in child bith from mother to child syphilis in the latent period
in this stage of syphilis you may enter latent stage w/o treatment, and 25% untreated cases lead to this. tertiary stage
you may have a cell mediated immune response due to surviving spirochetes with this stage of syphilis Tertiary stage
tertiary stage classified on? infected tissue and lesion type
gummatous syphillis gummas, progressive inflammation rubbery masses of tissue in multiple organs
this is seen after 15 years and causes localized tissue destruction gummatous syphilis
cardiovascular syphilis weaking of aorta, and now rare with antibiotics
neurosyphilis infects CNS, widely varies S/S
this degree of syphilis is rare to available treatment what degree am I? 3rd degree
Congenital syphilis most distressing and dangerous
transmitted across the placenta congenital syphilis
damages mental development and leads to neurological symptoms congenital syphilis
this is most common if mother is in latent stage congenital syphilis
treatment of mother during first 2 trimesters usually prevents this disease congenital syphilis
diagnosis of syphilis complex and different requirements depending on stage.
microscopic, nontreponemal serological tests and treponemal serological tests are all tests that can be done for syphilis
in the first stage of syphilis you would use this test microscopic because spirochetes can be seen in exudates, use dark field microscopy and may use DFA stains
this is how you would diagnosis syphilis in its 2nd stage nontreponomal serological test,
these test detects 99% of 2nd degree cases of syphilis nontreponomal serological tests
what are some examples of serological tests that can be done for stage 2 of syphilis VDRL, modified RPR, and elisa
what tests can be done in the 3rd degree stage of syphilis treponemal serological tests
treponemal serological tests are specific and enzyme immunoassay, rapid tests treponemal serological tests
FTA-ABS fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and not used for screening.
bacterial vaginosis inflammation of vagina
most often this bug causes bacterial vaginosis Gardnerella vaginalis
Gardnerella vaginalis is a small ______ gram () rod. pleomorphic (v)
characteristics of bacterial vaginosis are vaginal pH > 4.5, copious, frothy discharge, fishy odor with addition of potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Bacterial Vaginosis ecology is not well known but is believed that something decreases amount of lactobacillus, and allows for g. vaginalis to proliferate
this can be found in the maile urethra but now known to cause disease Gardnerella vaginalis
how would you diagnose bacterial vaginosis vagina pH, fishy odor, clue cells, & Genital affirm
tell me 2 things about clue cells slothed vaginal cells covered in biofilm, and see many gram (v) rods
Bacterial vaginosis is more of nuisance than infection but can be factos in these two things. premature birth, and low birth weight
Genital herpes is known as the herpes Simplex virus 2
1 in ___ over ____ are infected 4 over 30
gental lesion appears, vesicles appear, painful urination, walking and clothing uncomfortable and vescles form a head what am I symptoms of? Genital herpes
this can be infectious without symptoms or lesion, and semen may contain this, which make condoms of little use Genital herpes, virus
this ____ is distressing due to re-occurance virus
herpes virus enter _____ long latent stage life
you may have several re-occurances per year, and re-occurances are seen more in men then women, aprox 90% have re-occurance Herpes Simplex virus 2
you would use these tools to diagnosis genital herpes culture of virus from vesicle, PCR, and if no lesion- serological tests
is there any treatment for Genital herpes yes there is treatment but no cure
what is the goal with genital herpes goal is to supress, antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, and famciclovir are given
~1500 cases per year Neonatal herpes
neonatal herpes can cross the placental barrier and these could result from this spontaneous abortion, serious fetal damage such as mental retardation, and defective hearing and vision
fetal consequences most severe if first infectionis during pregnancy neonatal herpes
fetus is infected if virus is grown from the amniotic fluid neonatal herpes
If virus free the baby needs protection during passage through the birthing canal and may require a? ceasarean section
Gental warts human papillomavirus
some warts are extremely _____ & _____. large and warty
some warts are ____ & _____ smooth and flat
viable warts are caused by serotype 6 & 11
serotype ____ & _____ causes cancer 16 & 18
treatment of genital warts applied gels podofilox, and imiquimod
can genital warts be cured no
what is the percentage that is clear within 2 years with genital warts 90%
the vaccine for human papillomavirus is effective against which serotypes? 6,11,16 & 18
Candidiasis yeast infection
common cause of Candidiasis is Candida albicans
there is a more resistant form what is it candida glabrata
where can candidiasis grow mucous membrane of mouth, intestinal tract and GU tract
Candidiasis is usually opportunistic lesion similiar to thrush
Candidiasis can be irritating by causing these severe itching, yellow cheesy discharge, and yeasty or no odor
what are some predisposing conditions for Candidiasis oral contraceptives and pregancy, hormones, uncontrolled diabetes and use of broad spectrum ABT
How can you diagnose Candidiasis microscopic ID with vaginal scrapings, culture, and genital affirm
what is the treatment of Candidiasis topicasl application of nonperscription antifungals, i.e. clotrimazole, and miconazole or a single dose of oral antifungal Fluconazole
Trichmoniasis protozoan infection
trichmoniasis is caused by tricomonas vaginalis
frequant normal inhavitant is vagina of women and urethra of men
Trichmoniasis is considered a? STI
Trichmoniasis is often seen with co-infection of Gonnorehea
trichmoniasis is an accumulation of? leukocytes at infection site
The infection of leukocytes can result in profuse discharge, greenish yellow, foul odor,
in this dieses symptoms are rare in men trichmoniasis
1/2 of people that are infected with trichmoniasis are? asymptommatic
to diagnose trichmoniasis you must perform these tests. microscopic exam of discharge, trich prep, genital affirm, and can be found in seman or urine in males
many diseases cause birth defects and there is a prescreen for antibodies what is known as the TORCH Panal
The T in torch stands for Tocoplamosis
The O in torch stands for other tests such as syphilis, hep b, epstein Barr, varicella zoster
the R n torch stand for Rubella
The C in torch stands for Cytomagalovirus
The H in torch stands for Herpes Simplex virus
Created by: krw882