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THE BRAIN - growth

Consists of the medulla, pons and midbrain. Controls the reflexes and automatic functions, limb movements and visceral functions. Brainstem
Integrates information from the vestibular system that indicates position and movement, and uses this info to coordinate limb movements. Cerebellum
Outermost layer of the brain; rich in neurons and is the site of most sophisticated neural processing. Responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions. Cerebral Cortex
Consists of cortex, large fibre tracts and some deeper structures. Integrates from all sense organs indicates functions, controls emotions and holds memory and thought processes. Cerebrum
Tranverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. Corpus Callosum
A complex neural structure consisting of grey matter and located on the floor of each lateral ventricle. Involved in motivation, emotion as part of the limbic system; role in the formation of memories. Hippocampus
Helps control visceral functions, body temp. and behavioural responses. (Feeding, drinking, sexual response etc.) Pituitary Gland
Major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain; tube like from the brain. Spinal Cord
Relays incoming sensory pathways to appropriate areas of the cortex, determines which sensory information actually reaches consciousness; participates in motor-information exchange between cerebellum and more. Thalamus
Contains nuclei that control hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland. Governs sexual reproduction, eating, drinking, growth and maternal behaviour such as lactation. Involved in almost all aspects of behavior. Hypothalamus
Implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses. (Feeding, mating, emotion) Limbic System
Contains nuclei for regulating blood pressure and breathing, as well as nuclei for relaying information from the sense organs that comes in the cranial nerves. Medulla
Contains nuclei that link the various sections of the brain involved in motor functions, eye movements and auditory control. Midbrain
Contains nuclei that relay movement and position information from the cerebellum to the cortex. Involved in breathing, taste and sleep. Pons
Your dog does something you like, you give your dog something he likes. Positive Reinforcement
"You have to get good marks, while you are in house arrest." Negative Reinforcement
Adding of a bad consequence when the response is performed. Positive Punishment
Removal of a good consequence when the response is performed. Ex. When you say sit, the dog sits, and you hide the treat. Negative Punishment
Responsible for determining what memories are stored and where the memories are stored in the brain. Involved in our emotions and emotional learning. Amygdala
...in the limbic system and not enough in the corte may produce an overly suspicious personality. Causes paranoia Too much dopamine
...produces symptoms of poor memory as in PARKINSON'S DISEASE Too little dopamine
Sits right around the forehead; involved in many functions that some believe to be exclusive to humans. Frontal Lobe
Located towards the back of the head; Involved in integrating all different kinds of sensory information. (seeing, touching, feeling etc.) Parietal Lobe
Located at the side of the head; heavily involved in processing auditory information Temporal Lobe
Located at the very back of the head; Almost exclusively involved in vision. Occipital Lobe
Chemical neurotransmitter which carries a message across the synapses to the dentrites of the next neuron. Ethylcholine
This main part has all of the necessary components of the cell. (Nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum) Cell Body
Long, cable-like projection of the cell carries the electrochemical message along the length of the cell. Axon
Makes connections to other cells and allows the neuron to talk with other cells or perceive the environment. Dendrites/Nerve Endings
Small gaps between neurons. Synapses
Chemicals which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. Neurotransmitters
The process we use to transform information so that it can be stored. Encoding
Holding onto the information. Storage
Bringing the memory out of storage and reversing the process of encoding. Retrieval
Refers to memories that last about 20-30 seconds. Stored in the hippocampus;also known as working memory. Short-term Memory
Information that occurs first is typically remembered. Primacy Effect
The last bit of information is remembered better because not as much time has passed Recency Effect
Something stands out from information around it, it is often remembered. Distinctiveness
Rehearsal, results in better memory. Frequency Effect
We associate or attach information to other information it becomes easier to remember. Associations
Fill in the blanks in our memory. "Creating a complete picture in your head." Reconstructions
A mental state that arises spontaneously rather than through conscious effort. Emotions
Relates to what we are "feeling" to reactions of physiological changes in the body. (Event>Arousal>Interpretation>Emotion) James-Lange Theory
I see a bear. My muscles tense, my heart races. I feel afraid. James-Lange Theory
Feels emotions first, then feels physiological changes. (Event>Arousal,Emotion) Cannon-Bard Approach
I see a bear. I feel afraid. I tense in readiness to run away. Cannon-Bard Approach
An event causes physiological arousal first, then identifies the reason for the arousal, then you feel and label the emotion. (Event>Arousal>Reasoning>Emotion) Schachter-Singer Approach
I see a bear. My muscles tense, my heart races. I realize that I am alone and helpless. I feel afraid. Schachter - Singer Approach
States that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. (Event>Thought>Emotion, Arousal) Lazarus Theory
I see a bear. I think the bear may try to attack me. I feel afraid so I tense up and run. Lazarus Theory
Proposes that emotions are used and developed in order to survive. (Ex. the feeling of empathy allows humans to care and cooperate with others.) Evolutionary Theory
Stated that there are only 3 emotions: fear, anger and love. Believes that emotions are reactions to events. Believed emotion to be a process similar to classical conditioning. Watson's Theory
The interference that occurs when we try to ignore the meaning of words while trying to identify the colour of the ink that the words are written in. Stroop Effect
Disorder; affects an individual's ability to read, write or spell. Dyslexia
Seeing (sense) Vision
Hearing (sense) Audition
Smelling (sense) Olfaction
Tasting (sense) Gustation
Touching (sense) Tactile Senses
Moving (sense) Proprioception
Located in the lower left frontal lobe; Responsible for language production...(1) Damage to this area disrupt's one's ability to speak...(2) 1. Broca's Area 2. Broca's Aphasia
Understanding language and is located in the back of the temporal lobe...(1) Damage to this area could result in poor language comprehension and the production of meaningless sentences...(2) 1. Wernicke's Area 2. Wernicke's Aphasia
Basic building block of speech. (Letters; sound alphabet for speech) Phoneme
Smallest unit of meaning Morpheme
Can predict people by measuring head, eyes and length of nose. Cedric Lomborso Phrenology
The CNS (Central Nervous System) consists of... The brain, the cranial nerves and the spinal cord.
Is the brain of a newborn fully developed? No
The brain at infancy is __% of the adult size 25%
By the age of one year, the brain has grown __% of its adult size. 75%
By the age of 3 years, the brain has grown __% of its adult size 80%
By the age of 7 years, the brain has grown __% of its adult size. 90%
A living optical instrument Eyes
The inside back surface of the eye; absorbs light, processes images, sends visual information to the brain. Retina
Robbery; victims felt and understood robber's story. Stockholm Sweden 1972
Having people with more power over you; Ex. Women staying in abusive relationships Stockholm Syndrome
How we cope with stress. GAS - General Adaptation System
The 3 steps in coping with stress are: 1. Recognize stress 2. Deal with it 3. Ignore it. (whatever you can't handle, gets ignored)
No motivation, even when parents give you everything. Failure to Thrive
The bond that happens with parents and their kids, right at birth. Attachment Theory
No Attachment Theory, _____ __ _____ happens. Failure to thrive
Created by: dcmarlon