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Exam 1


evolution change in populations over time (i.e. height)
biocultural approach sex drive, social structure, pop. growth (birth/death rates)
holistic drawing from all subfields of physical anthropology and other fields to answer questions re: evolution
adaptation anything giving advantages (cultural, biological), technological, social systems/rules, physiological, genetic
subfields: anthropology cultural, linguistics, archaeology, physical/biological
areas of study within phys. anthropology human variation, growth/development, osteology, primatology, paleoanthropology
fact verifiable truth
theory set of hypothesis tested repeatedly, and have not been rejected
hypothesis explanation of observed facts, testable, w/potential for rejection
scientific method (blank)
natural selection 1. physical and behavioral variation, 2. excessive fecundity, 3. advantageous traits, 4. populations will change over time
fixity of species Species are fixed, will never change.
chain of being HIERARCHY affixity of species: God --> Angels --> People --> Animals --> etc.
Linnaeus Taxonomy. Classified living organisims: BASIS for communication about nature. GENUSspecies
Cuvier Catastrophisim. Believed "periods of time when many animals die @ once." Tried to identify fossils. Didn't believe: extinciton
Erasmus Darwin "Organisims change to fit the environment. All life derived from a single ancestor."
Malthus Excessive Fecundity. "Populations increase exponentially, food resources are constant."
Wallace Correspondent of Darwin's who accidentally stumbled upon his same theories. "On the Tendancy of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type"
reproductive success (fitness) (blank)
selective pressures Environmental change causing a pop. to evolve
evolution: observed examples (blank)
directional/stabilizing/diversifying selection DIRECTIONAL average shifts, original becomes rare. pop. pushed L or R. (e.g. housefly resistance to DDT) STABILIZING works against two extremes (variance - e.g. infant birthweight) DIVERSIFYING e.g. female swallowtail butterflies mimic poisonous variety
prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells PRO single celled organisms (3.7b years on earth), EUK multicellular organisms (1.2b years on earth)
nucleus Cells' core. Contains DNA, RNA.
DNA Deoxyribonuleic acid. Basic info. for life.
RNA (blank)
mRNA TAKES DNA OUTSIDE nucleus --> ribosome
tRNA Txfr mRNA into amino acids which build protein
cytoplasm inside cell membrane: contains ribosomes, mitochondria, etc.
proteins building blocks of organic life
mitochondria energy production.
ribosomes location of protein synthesis
somantic cells body tissues
gametes sex cells
zygote fertilized egg
nucleotides (2 chains small molecules) composed of three parts: SUGAR MOLECULE, PHOSPHATE, NITROGENOUS BASE
complementary bases adenine - thymine, guanine - cytosine
DNA replication Essential for new cell formation. A. Bonds break, nucleotides exposed, B.Parental nucleotides are templates, C. Free-floating nucleotides attach (zip up)
protein synthesis nucleotide "message" taken from a gene, transcribed, and translated into a protein. Occurs in RIBOSOMES (cytoplasm).
amino acids building blocks of proteins
triplets & codons SYNONYMS: 3-Base pairs. TRIPLET three-nucleotide sequence of DNA code. CODON three-nucleotide sequence translating DNA to mRNA.
genes & chromosomes GENE segment of DNA containing protein sequence. CHROMOSOME house supercoiled DNA (wound around binding proteins) in the nucleus. Complex.
homologous chromosomes Chromosomes come in homologous pairs, and GOVERN the SAME GENES(but may not be genetically identical). Affect SAME TRAIT.
autosomes & sex chromosomes AUTOSOMES 22 pairs, physical characteristics. SEX CHROMOSOMES 1 pair, primary sex determination.
mitosis Body (somantic cells) duplication & division. 46 chromosomes. Two pairs double stranded. Identical to parent cells, unless mutation occurred.
meiosis Sex cells' (gametes') duplication. First division, recombination, second division. Diploid: 46. Haploid: 23.
crossing over & recombination Same process. CROSSING OVER homologous (sister) chromosomes exchange segments. Resulting in: RECOMBINATION shuffling of maternal/paternal chromosomes during meiosis.
oogenesis OVARIES...ovam, three polar bodies, 22 autosomes, X chromosome
spermatogenesis TESTES...four spermatids, 22 autosomes, X or Y chromosome
haploid & diploid HAPLOID gametes: 23 single chromosomes (half genetic complement). DIPLOID somantic: 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs.
aneuploidy Problem w/ meiosis. Leads to: abnormal # chromosomes. ACCIDENT> RANDOM> NOT HERITABLE
nondisjunction Failure of chromosomes to separate
autosomal monosomy - - | cat cry syndrome (-,5). Some part of body will not form properly, mentally retarded.
autosomal trisomy | | | down syndrome (21, 21, 21)...usually due to advanced maternal age.
sex chromosome monosomy Turner syndrome (X,-)...never matures phenotypically
sex chromosome trisomy TRIPLE-X (XXX)...no record of medical problems exibited. KLINEFELTER (XXY)1:600 male births, Development female body shape. JACOB/SUPERMAN (XYY) greater than avg. height.
preformation Ancient idea - human awaiting in sperm.
blending Theory...offsprings' parent intermediate (everything would look the same over generations). DECREASES VARIATION.
pangenesis proposed by Darwin: microscopic gemmules present in every organism --> capable of change --> travel to sex cells and modify them
Mendel Famous pea model. Rediscovered 1900. Unseen by Darwin.
parental generation P1 Cross polinate TRUE BREEDING plants
first filial generation F1 Hybrids. Observed trait is dominant. Lost trait is recessive. (Dom. allele affects phenotype)
second filial generation F2 Self polinate F1 hybrids 3:1 ratio; recessive re-appears
dominant/recessive/codominant alleles Dominant e.g.: achondroplasia, neurofibromatosis, marfan syndrome. Recessive e.g.: Cystic fibrosis, tay-sachs disease, PKU, albinism
locus place (parking spot) on a chromosome where a specific gene occurs
alleles a varient sequence of nucleotides in a gene(set of instructions)
homozygous & heterozygous HETERO different alleles at both loci for the same gene. HOMO same allele at both loci for the same gene.
genotype & phenotype genotype: internal. phenotype: external
law of segregation Only ONE of each pair of alleles is passed on when gametes form (one from father, one from mother)
law of independant assortment The segregation of any pair of chromosomes does not influence the segregation of any other pair of chromosomes. CHROMOSOMES from separate pairs INHERITED INDEPENDENTLY
Mendelian traits (blank)
Inheritance of Mendelian traits (blank)
pedigree (blank)
autosomal Mendelian traits DOMINANT every generation, men & women. RECESSIVE generations sometimes skipped. (homozygous recessive)
sex-linked mendelian traits Majority : X-chromosome. 300? Not as much info. on Y. Females: same pattern as autosomal. Males: hemizygous (affected or normal). e.g. hemophilia, G6PD, muscular dystrophy, red-green color blindness, Lesch-nyhan, ichthyosis
inheritance of sex-linked traits (blank)
polygenic inheritance many genes combine to have one effect (e.g. skin color)
pleiotropy NOT MENDELIAN. One gene affects multiple phenotypes. e.g. PKU (can cause damage to central nervous system)
modifying gene can alter the expression of another gene (e.g. cataracts)
regulatory genes turn things on and off (e.g. probably control aging)
incomplete penetrance Have genetic info. for disease...but DO NOT EXPRESS disease, depending on ENVIRONMENT.
sex-linked trait Expressed by one sex (e.g. beard)
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium NO EVOLUTION MODEL: 1. Mating is random, 2. No mutation, 3. No natural selection, 4. No migration, 5. Large populations. AT LEAST ONE MUST BE TRUE FOR EVOLUTION TO OCCUR.
modern synthesis (blank)
microevolution (blank)
macroevolution (blank)
mutation having less or more of the diploid/haploid #
gene flow exchange of genes between populations
genetic drift OPPOSITE GENE FLOW: variation gets distributed...due to sampling phenomena, inversely related to pop. size.
founder effect random subset of genetic info. (e.g. Lobster claw: Zimbabwe pop., total colorblindness: pingelap pop.)
natural selection (blank)
types of nonrandom mating CONSANGUINEOUS close relative. ASSORTATIVE close characteristics.
sickle cell allele Environmental issue: common in malarial areas. Protects somewhat agains this disease.
balanced polymorphism (blank)
misconceptions about evolution 1. Bigger is better (more energy req.), 2.Newer is better, 3.Natural selection always works, 4. Inevitable direction in evolution, 5.Natural selection produces perfect structures, 6.All structures adaptive, 7.Current structures reflect initial adaptations
function of bone 1. protect/support soft tissue, 2. Center: blood cell production, 3. storage: fat, 4. reservoirs of important elements
lever systems moved by muscle: the entire human body
types of joints SYNOVIAL: ball/socket, hinge, saddle shaped. CARTILAGINIOUS: between growth centers. FIBROUS: cranial sutures
bone types: gross level TUBULAR: long, thin (limbs, hands, foot). FLAT: cranium, shoulder, pelvis, rib cage. BLOCKY: ankle, wrist, spine. COMPACT: solid, dense (walls bone shafts, external surface). SPONGY: porous, honeycomb. PERIOSTEUM: tough! blood vessel penetration - bleeds
bone types: molecular level COLLAGEN: flexiblilty. protein. Most common bodily protein. 90% bone content. HYDROXYAPATITE: strong! woven w/collagen.
Bone types: histological level IMATURE embryonic skeletons, fractures, tumors (coarsley bundled, woven). MATURE layed in thin layers, replaces immature bones.
parts of long bones Epiphyses (ends), diaphysis (shaft), metaphyses (flared ends of shaft)
Wolff's law 1869 BONE REMODELING. "Bone is laid down where needed and reabsorbed where not needed."
osteoblasts & osteoclasts BLASTS: make bone. CLASTS: remove(take) bone.
bone repair HEMATOMA: periostium bleeds, forms blood clot @ site, limiting mvmt. FIBROUS CALLUS: mineralized in immature bone. 6WKS immature --> mature bone
Aging the skeleton 1. Epiphyseal closure, 2. cranial suture closure, 3. dentition
Sexing the skeleton FEMALE: forehead higher, wider pelvis. MALE: developed brow ridges, chin. Mastoid process more developed. Narrower pelvis.
geographic/population based variation (blank)
Harris lines (blank)
osteoarthritis joint disease: age, sex, hormones, medical stress, genetic history. BONY LIPPING> SPUR FORMATION> EBURNATION
bone fractures flexiblility fails
artificial deformation (blank)
infectious diseases OSTEOMYELITIS (pus-producing bacteria builds up inside bone). cloacae (holes formed for pus to escape). TUBURCULOSIS chronic, bacterial, attacks vertebre. SYPHILIS microogrganism, lesions, gummas.
anemias Porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia ("sieve-like, coral-like" lesions)
metabolic disorders rickets - weakening of bone (not enough vitamin D). Dental hypoplasia (bands).
dental pathology caries, pulpitis, peridontal disease
Lamarck AQUIRED CHARACTERISITC. Animals change to fit environment. FIRST testable hypothesis. Giraffe ex: stretching necks over time to reach food. FIRST attempt to explain evolution/
Lyell UNIFORMITARIANISM. geologist. Published "principals of geology." Re: Uniformitarianism, formation geological strata. "Earth prob. very old and changes over time."
Charles Darwin college degree: divinity. 1831 Beagle voyage (5 yrs.): island/mainland species, extinct/living species, marsupials/monotremes. TRANSITIONAL FORMS, EXCESSIVE FECUNDITY: pops. increase exponentially, food resources constant.
Created by: goldmeg89