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NIC written guide

Identity and communication in the Deaf community

Hearing view of deafness focuses on the ears: defined as the inability to hear, viewed as a deficit or an impairment, conntected to specified decibel loss and uses terms to indicate the degree of hearing impairment, mild, moderate, severe and profound.
Deaf view of deafness focuses on community and culture. "Deaf" is a label of pride and solidarity with others who have similar experiences, used a shared form of communication, subscribe to Deaf culture values, norms and traditions viewed as positive, normal,sometimes inconv.
ASL the language of the American Deaf community; it is often described as a visual-gestural language with a grammar, culture, and vocabulary distinct from English and other signed languages. ASL is also used by deaf people in some parts of Canada
Sign Supported Speech a broad term used to refer to a variety of English-based signing systems; compsed of invented hand movements that attempt to represent English in a manual/visual form, relying entirely upon the lexicon and syntax of English, and usu
MCE a term used to refer to a number of sign language systems that attempt to visually represent English by using its grammar and created or modified signs to represent English vocabulary; includes Signing Exact English (SEE) and Pidgin Signed English (PSE).
PSE a term often used to refer to signing that occurs when deaf people and people who are not deaf interact; PSE uses ASL vocabulary in English word order. This is also sometimes referred to as contact signing
SEE2 a manual code for representing spoken English that follows English grammar and uses invented or modified signs to represent English vocabulary; SEE was developed in an effort to improve Deaf students' English language skills
Anglicized ASL a form of signing which blends ASL with English-based signs; a contact variety more closely affiliated with ASL than English
CASE a manual code for English which combines English grammatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs; choices of signs based on the intended concept or idea of the speaker.
Contact varieties a mixture of two languages resulting from prolonged language contact between members of different linguistic communities - includes code-switching, code-mixing, and lexical borrowing; sometimes referred to as PSE.
English based signs a generic term used to refer to a variety of signing systems based on English structure, rather than the stucture of ASL; includes the Rochester Method, SEE1, SEE2, and CASE.
Rochester Method a manual code for English wherein each letter of the English alphabet is assigend a hand shape and all words communicated, with the exception of AND, are fingerspelled.
SEE1 Seeing Essential English; a manual code for English wherein each syllable is given a separate manual movement.
SE Signed English; combines English grammatical order with ASL signs as well as some invented initialized signs.
Congenital Deafness to be born deaf or hard-of-hearing.
Adventitious deafness to become deaf at some point after birth
MLS/MLC/HVO inadequate education, lack of exposure to any language or for other reasons are not competent in any language. They use neither ASL nor English fluently. They may use "home signs".It is common to use props, gestures, pictures and a Deaf interpreter
Visual-gestural languages based on a structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication base is the movement of the face and body rather than sound; sign languages throughout the world fall into this category.
Total Communication first defined as using any means necessary to successfully communicate with a Deaf child; adopted and redefined by the education system to mean speaking and signing at the same time (sim-com)
Speechreading a skill employed by some deaf and hh individuals to comprehend spoken communication; involves a combination of deciphering lip, cheek, and throat movements, clarifying gestures and use of closure skills to determine meaning.
Simultaneous Communication speaking and signing at the same time (sim-com); problems include omission of signs, semantic errors, unclear production of signs, and confused mouth markers (also called sign supported speech).
Code Switching the conscious or unconscious movement from ASL into English-like signing or from English-like signing to ASL; this often occurs due to the experience of oppression common to Deaf people in Canada and the U.S.
Created by: Signer9308