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test over chapters 6 & 7

study of nutrients and the way the body processe them nutrition
Daily Reference Intake DRI
established to prevent aute deficiency diseases DRI's & RDA's
being revised to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases DRI's and the RDAs
todays primary nutrition-related problem early onset of chronic diseases
Nutriens that cannot be made by the diet and must be supplied by the det Essential Nutrients
carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, & water (C,F, P, V, M, & H2O Essential Nutrients
Fats, Carbs, & proteins Energy Producing nutrients
which supplies the body with calories fats, carbs, & Proteins
a measure of food energy = calorie
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water 1 degree centrigrade calorie
A gram of carbohydrate or protein = provides 4 calories of energy
a gram of fat = provides 9 calories
a gram of alcohol = 7 calories ...BUT is not an essential nutrient
10 grams of protein + 10 grams of carbs = 80 calories
40% should be in form of carbs 50% should be COMPLEX CaRBS should actually be 75%
>25 - 30% of calories should come from ? FAT
15 - 20% of calories should come from ? PROTEiN
40/30/30 OVERALL carbs/fats/proteins
Monosaccharides SIMPLE sugars = "OSE" = broken down quickly
Polysaccharides COMPLEX = whole grain, high fiber, starches help to maintain normal blood sugar levels
Carbohydrates sugars and starches from plants
glycemic index
Protein 15 - 20% should come from ... (LEAN)
complete proteins contain all amino acids
high-quality proteins contain amino acids in the proportion needed by body to build & repair tissue (usually found in meat & dairy)
animal products are COMPLETE PROTEINS
of the 20 amino acids 9 are essential & must come from the diet
Incomplete proteins do NOT contain amino acids in proportions needed (plant foods)
Complete proteins (non-meat) Legumes, such as soy
average daily protein requirements .36 grams per lb of body weight of protein per day or 1/3 to 1/2 of body weight in grams of protein
excess protein is stored as fat (high protein intakes strains te kidneys, and causes the body to excrete calcium
Fats (lipids) are composed of chains of carbon atoms, with hydrogen atoms attached
greater the hydrogenated fat is = more saturatd fat = leads to cardiovascular disease should have NO MORE THAN 10%
Saturated fats carry all the hydrogen atoms they can
Mono-unsaturated have room for 2 hydrogen atoms
polyunsaturated fats have room for 4 or more hydrogen atoms (HAVE MOST BENEFITS) however, still need to keep >35%
body requires 3 calories to digest 100 calories of dietary fat
body requires 23 - 27 calories to digest 100 calories of carbs (carbs are more efficient fuel)
Hydrogenated products have hydroen toms added into them so that they are more resistant to spoilage (increases shelf life)
hydrogenation = a new type of fat called transfatty acids = saturated fats
find the hidden fat in a label! if it says Total fat 12 g and ten lists sat fat 6 g & poly 1.5 & mono 2.5 = 10 where are the other 2?
Vitamins organic compounds necessary in small amounts for good health - THEY DO NOT SUPPLY ENERGY however they help you process evrything better
Fat-soluable vitamins A, D, E, ad K (excess amounts are stored in the body. (75% people DONT get enough "D" = sunshine!)
Antioxidat vitamins C, E & carotiens (HELP neutralize the activity of free radicals
free radicals cause cellular damage that contribute to disease
how much vit C 150- 500 and the rest gets peed ut!
Healthy adults who eat a variety of foods DO NOT NEED VITAMIN SUPP
Exceptions for peeps that need vtamins -over 65 -consume >1000 calories -have digestive tract disease -smoke, drink alcohol excessviely -are pregnant or lactating -are vegetarians
Minerals inorganic compounds that fullfill a variety of functions in the body
macrominerals (major minerals) arerequired in large amounts - MORE than 100 grams per day!
microminerls (trace minerals) are required in mall amounts LESS tan 100 per day
Calcium/Iron minerals most commonly deficient especially in women calcium isnt absorbed effciently without Vitamin D
Vegetarians tend to b lethargic because usually IRON deficient
DASH DIET similar to glycemic diet
Water next to air, water is substance most necessary for survival -60% of body = H2O -recommended 8 -12 cups -1/2 bdy weight in ounces drinking COLD H2O can burn an extra 80 - 100 calories day!!
body composition ratio between fat and fat-free mass
FAT FREE MASS includes ALL tissues EXCLUSIVE of FAT (muscles, bon, organs, fluids)
Essential Fat is necessary for normal biological function -ess fAT/men = 3 - 5% of total weight -ess fat/wmen = 8 - 12% of total weight
Obesity AND OVerweight men - = or > 25% oftotal body weight women - = or > 35% of total body weight
Overweight = is excessive weight fr height and does NOT consider body composition
Methods of measuring body weight HEIGHT weight tables...DONT reflect body composition, and are POOR instrments for weight loss recommendatons as it does NOT rflect body frame
Methods of measurng body weight Body Mass Index (BMI) ratio of body weight in kilograms to height in meters squared -people with BMIs of 25 to 29.9 are considered overweight, -BMIs of 30 and higher are onsidered OBESE
Regional Fat Distribution -waist to hip ratio (WHR) = simple method for determining body fat distribution -Waist circumference can also predict disease risk
Measuring Body Composition -only DIRECT way to measure the fat content of humans is through chemicalanalysesof cadavers
In-DIRECT methods of measuring body composition -Underwater weighing = most accurate (people with muscle mass weigh more in water than those with less)
Bioelectrical impedance analysis uses low-level, single frequency electric current to measure body composition -best to use with lrge group -least effective of in-direct methods -important to keep variable same each time
skin-fold measurements most economical way to measure body comp AND when performed by a skilled tech correlates well with hydrostatic weighing -HOWEVER NOT NOT a good mesurementfr an obese person as it would be demoralizing
air deplacement = VERY costlY Plethysmography -uses air displacement rather than water for assecing body comp by sitting in the bod
Dual Energy x-ray Apsorption DEXA - bone mineral density, quantification of fat, and lean tissue using very low exposure to radiationj
methods of measuring body fat 1) Underwater weighing 2) biomedical impedance analysis 3) Skinfold measurement 4) Air-displacement (PLethysmography) 5) Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorption
Bod Frames Ectomorph Meso morph Endo morph
Ectomorph smaller frae person = carry less weight
Mesomorph Medium frame = carry more muscle tissue
Endomorph Larger frame = more bone, issue mass which weighs mre & requires more weight
Created by: lisasbest