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Anatomy--Chapter 16

The alimentary tube extends from the mouth to the anus
Accessory organs Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Accessory organs means digestion does NOT take place in these organs
Mechanical digestion the physical breaking up of food into smaller pieces
Chemical digestion the work of the digestive enzymes
The oral cavity is made up of the hard and soft palates superiorly; the cheeks laterally; and the floor of the mouth inferiorly
The deciduous teeth are the baby teeth
Gingiva gum
Periodontal membrane lines the socket and produces a bone-like cement that anchors the tooth
Salivary glandds parotid glands, submandibular glands, and the sublingual glands
The parotid glands are located just below and in front of the ears
The submandibular glands are located at the posterior corners f the mandible
The sublingual glands are located below the floor of the mouth
The esophagus a muscular tube that takes food from the pharynx to the stomach
Lower esophageal sphincter a circular smooth muscles that surrounds the lumen at the junction with the stomach
Muscosa The lining of the alimentary tube, which is made of epithelial tissue, areolar connective tissue and two thin layers of smooth muscle
The epithelium of the alimentary tube secretes mucus, which lubricates the passage of food, and also secretes the digestive enzymes of the stomach and small intestine
Submucosa made of areolar connective tissue with many blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
enteric nervous system The millions of nerve fibers that are present in the digestive system
Meissner's plexus The nerve networks in the submucosa
The one-way contractions of ______ move the food toward the anus peristalsis
Auerbach's plexus the portion of the enteric nervous system in the external muscle layer
The stomach is located in the upper-left quadrant of the abdominal cavity, to the left of the liver and in front of the spleen
Rugae The folds of the stomach
Gastric pits The glands of the stomach
Mucous cells secrete mucus
Chief cells secrete pepsinogen
Parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid
Proton pumps secrete H+ ions into the stomach cavity
Duodenum The first 10 inches of the small intestine
The jejenum is about ______ long 8 feet
The ileum is about ______ long 11 feet
The liver consists of two large loves, right and left, and fills the upper right and center of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm
Liver lobule A roughly hexagonal column of liver cells
The only digestive job of the liver is producing bile
Hepatic duct takes bile out of thte liver
Common bile duct The joining of the hepatic duct and cystic duct of the gallbladder
Emulsification large fat globules are broke into smaller globules
Production of bile is stimulated by the hormone secretin
Cystic duct the part of the gallbladder that stores bile until it is needed
The gallbladder concentrates bile by absorbing water
Gallbladder a sac about 3 to 4 inches long located on the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver
Panrcreas located in the upper left abdominal quadrant between the curve of the duodenum and the spleen, and is about inches in length.
The pancreas produces enzymes that are involved in the digestion of all three types of complex food molecules
Created by: akikoandpoog