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Midterm Theories

5010 Midterm - Theories

QuestionAnswer
Psychoanalytic Therapy Human being are basically determined by psychic energy and be early experiences
Psychoanalytic Therapy Unconscious motives and conflicts are central in present behavior
Psychoanalytic Therapy Irrational forces are strong; the person is driven by sexual and aggressive impulses
Psychoanalytic Therapy Early development is of critical importance because later personality problems have their roots in repressed childhood conflicts
Psychoanalytic Therapy Normal personality development is based on successful resolution and integration of psychosexual stages of development
Psychoanalytic Therapy Faulty personality development is the result of inadequate resolution of some specific stage
Psychoanalytic Therapy Anxiety is a result of repression of basic conflicts
Psychoanalytic Therapy Unconscious processes are centrally related to current behavior
Psychoanalytic Therapy Goal is to make the unconscious conscious
Psychoanalytic Therapy Goal is to reconstruct the basic personality
Psychoanalytic Therapy Goal is to assist clients in reliving earlier experiences and working through repressed conflicts
Psychoanalytic Therapy Goal is to achieve intellectual and emotional awareness
Psychoanalytic Therapy, Classical Analyst Relationship remains anonymous and clients develop projections towards him/her
Psychoanalytic Therapy, Classical Analyst Relationship focus is on reducing the resistances that develop in working with transference and on establishing rational control
Psychoanalytic Therapy, Classical Analyst Clients undergo long-term analysis, engage in free association to uncover conflicts, and gain insight by talking
Psychoanalytic Therapy, Classical Analyst Analyst makes interpretations to teach clients the meaning of current behavior as it relates to the past
Psychoanalytic Therapy, Contemporary Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy Relationship is central and emphasis is given to here-and-now dimensions of relationship
Psychoanalytic Therapy Interpretation, dream analysis, free association, analysis of resistance, analysis of transference and understanding countertransference
Psychoanalytic Therapy Designed to help clients gain access to their unconscious conflicts, which leads to insight and eventual assimilation of new material by the ego
Psychoanalytic Therapy Candidates include professionals who want to become therapists, people who have had intensive therapy and want to go further, and those who are in psychological pain
Psychoanalytic Therapy Not recommended for self-centered and impulsive individuals or for people with psychotic disorders
Psychoanalytic Therapy Can be applied to individual and group therapy
Psychoanalytic Therapy Focus on family dynamics is appropriate for working with many cultural groups
Psychoanalytic Therapy Therapist's formality appeals to clients who expect professional distance
Psychoanalytic Therapy Notion of ego defense is helpful in understanding inner dynamics and dealing with environmental stresses
Psychoanalytic Therapy Focus on insight, intrapyschic dynamics, and long-term treatment is often not valued by clients who prefer to learn coping skills for dealing with pressing daily concerns
Psychoanalytic Therapy Internal focus is often in conflict with cultural values that stress an interpersonal and environmental focus
Psychoanalytic Therapy Generated controversy and exploration; stimulated further thinking and development of therapy
Psychoanalytic Therapy Provided a detailed and comprehensive description of personality structure and functioning
Psychoanalytic Therapy Brought into prominence factors such as the unconscious as a determinant of behavior and the role of trauma during the first 6 years of life
Psychoanalytic Therapy Developed several techniques for tapping the unconscious and shed light on the dynamics of transference, countertransference, resistance, anxiety, and the mechanisms of ego defense.
Psychoanalytic Therapy Requires lengthy training for therapists and time/expense for clients
Psychoanalytic Therapy Model stresses biological and instinctual factors to the neglect of social, cultural, and interpersonal ones
Psychoanalytic Therapy Methods are less applicable for solving specific daily life problems and may not be appropriate for some ethnic/cultural group
Psychoanalytic Therapy Many clients lack the degree of ego strength needed for regressive and reconstructive therapy
Psychoanalytic Therapy May be inappropriate for certain counseling settings
Psychoanalytic Therapy The goal of much of life is to gain pleasure and avoid pain
Psychoanalytic Therapy “life instincts” serve the purpose of survival and include all pleasurable acts
Psychoanalytic Therapy Unconscious is inferred from behavior and stores experiences, memories, and repressed material
Psychoanalytic Method for revealing unconscious Dreams representation needs, wishes and conflicts
Psychoanalytic Method for revealing unconscious Slips of the tongue and forgetting
Psychoanalytic Method for revealing unconscious Posthypnotic suggestions
Psychoanalytic Method for revealing unconscious Material derived from free-association techniques
Psychoanalytic Method for revealing unconscious Material derived from projective techniques
Psychoanalytic Method for revealing unconscious Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms
Classical psychoanalysis free association and laying on a couch
Contemporary psychoanalysis Therapist does not strive for detached and objective stance
Contemporary psychoanalysis Highlights the importance of therapeutic relationship in bringing about change
Classic Psychoanalysis Blank screen approach, analysts take an anonymous stance
Classic Psychoanalysis they engage is very little self-disclosure and maintain a sense of neutrality to foster a transference relationship so clients will make projections onto them
Psychoanalytic Therapy central function of analyst is to teach clients the meaning of these processes (through interpretation) so that they are able to achieve insight into their problems, increase their awareness of ways to change and thus gain more control over their lives
Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy regards transference as being an interactive process between the client the therapist
Psychodynamic Therapy Geared more to limited objectives than to restructuring one’s personality
Psychodynamic Therapy Less likely to use a couch
Psychodynamic Therapy Fewer sessions each week
Psychodynamic Therapy Frequent use of supportive interventions(reassurance, expressions of empathy, etc) and more self-disclosure by therapist
Psychodynamic Therapy Focus is on pressing practical concerns
Classical psychoanalysis grounded on id psychology
Classical psychoanalysis instincts and intrapsychic conflicts are the basic factors shaping personality development
Contemporary psychoanalysis based on ego psychology
Contemporary psychoanalysis does not deny the role of intrapsychic conflict but emphasizes the striving of the ego for mastery and competence throughout the life span
Jung’s Analytical Psychology Elaborate explanation of human nature the combines ideas from history, mythology, anthropology, and religion
Jung’s Analytical Psychology we are shaped not only from our past, but from our aspirations of the future as well
Contemporary Trends Rooted in traumas and development disturbances during the separation-individuation phase
Jung Psychoanalytic Therapy less deterministic and focused on midlife
Contemporary Psychoanalytic Therapy less authoritarian, less adherent to objective "truth", more developmental/social
Adlerian Therapy humans are motivated by social interest, by striving towards goals, by inferiority and superiority, and by dealing with tasks of life.
Adlerian Therapy emphasis is on the individual’s positive capacities to live in society cooperatively
Adlerian Therapy people have the capacity to interpret, influence, and create events
Adlerian Therapy each person at an early age creates a unique style of life, which tends to remain relatively constant throughout life
Existential Therapy central focus is on the nature of the human condition
Existential Therapy capacity for self-awareness, freedom of choice to decide one’s fate , and taking responsibility
Existential Therapy includes anxiety, the search for meaning, and being alone
Existential Therapy striving for authenticity and being in relations with others
Person-centered Therapy view of humans in positive, we have an inclination towards becoming fully functioning
Person-centered Therapy client experiences feelings that were previously denied to awareness in therapy
Person-centered Therapy client moves toward increased awareness, spontaneity, trust in self, and inner-directedness
Gestalt Therapy person strives for wholeness and integration of thinking, feeling and behaving
Gestalt Therapy key concepts include contact with self and others, contact boundaries, and awareness
Gestalt Therapy view is nondeterministic in that the person is viewed as having the capacity to recognize how earlier influences are related to present difficulties
Gestalt Therapy an experiential approach
Gestalt Therapy grounded in the here and now
Gestalt Therapy emphasizes awareness, personal choice, and responsibility
Person-centered Therapy client has the potential to become aware of problems and the means to resolve them
Person-centered Therapy faith is placed in the client’s capacity for self-direction
Person-centered Therapy mental health is a congruence of ideal self and real self
Person-centered Therapy maladjustment is the result of a discrepancy between what one wants to be and what one is
Person-centered Therapy attention in therapy is given to the present moment and on experiencing and expressing feelings
Gestalt Therapy emphasis is on the “what” and “how” of experiencing in the here and now to help clients accept all aspects of themselves
Gestalt Therapy key concepts include holism and awareness
Gestalt Therapy key concepts include figure-formation, contact and energy
Gestalt Therapy key concepts include unfinished business and avoidance
Adlerian Therapy key concepts include unity of personality and the need to view people from their subjective perspective
Adlerian Therapy key concepts include the importance of life goals that give direction to behavior
Adlerian Therapy people are motivated by social interest and by finding goals to give life meaning
Adlerian Therapy key concepts include striving for significance and superiority
Adlerian Therapy key concepts include developing a unique lifestyle and understanding the family constellation
Adlerian Therapy therapy is a matter of providing encouragement and assisting clients in changing their cognitive perspective and behavior
Existential Therapy an experiential approach rather than a firm theoretical model
Existential Therapy stresses the human condition
Existential Therapy personality development is based on the uniqueness of each individual
Existential Therapy sense of self develops from infancy
Existential Therapy interest is on the present and on what one is becoming
Existential Therapy approach has a future orientation and stresses self-awareness before action
Adlerian Therapy goal to challenge clients’ basic premises and life goals
Adlerian Therapy goal to offer encouragement so individuals can develop socially useful goals and increase social interest
Adlerian Therapy goal to develop client’s sense of belonging
Existential Therapy goal to help people see that they are free to become aware of their possibilities
Existential Therapy goal to challenge them to recognize that they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them
Existential Therapy goal to identify factors that block freedom
Person-centered Therapy goal to provide a safe climate conducive to clients’ self-exploration, so they can recognize blocks to growth and can experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted
Person-centered Therapy goal to enable clients to move towards openness, greater trust in self, willingness to be a process, and increased spontaneity and aliveness
Person-centered Therapy goal to find meaning in life and to experience life fully
Person-centered Therapy goal to become more self-directed
Gestalt Therapy goal to assist clients in gaining awareness of moment-to-moment experiencing
Gestalt Therapy goal to assist clients to expand the capacity to make choices
Gestalt Therapy goal to foster integration of the self
Adlerian Therapy emphasis is on joint responsibility, on mutually determining goals, and mutual trust and respect, and on equality
Adlerian Therapy focus is on identifying, exploring, and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty assumptions within the person’s lifestyle
Existential Therapy therapist’s main tasks are to accurately grasp clients’ being in the world and to establish a personal and authentic encounter with them
Existential Therapy immediacy of the client-therapist relationship and the authenticity of the here and now encounter are stressed
Existential Therapy both client and therapist can be changed by the encounter
Person-centered Therapy therapeutic relationship is of primary importance
Person-centered Therapy qualities of therapist include genuineness, warmth, accurate empathy, respect, and nonjudgmentalness
Person-centered Therapy clients use genuine relationship with therapist to help them transfer what they learn to other relationships
Gestalt Therapy central importance is given to I/Thou relationship and the quality of the therapist’s presence
Gestalt Therapy therapist’s attitudes and behavior count more than the techniques used
Gestalt Therapy therapist does not interpret for clients but assist them in developing the means to make their own interpretations
Gestalt Therapy clients identify and work on unfinished business from the past that interferes with current functioning
Adlerian Therapy pays more attention to the subjective experiences of clients than to using techniques
Adlerian Therapy techniques include gathering life-history, sharing interpretations with clients and assisting clients search for new possibilities
Existential Therapy stresses understanding first and techniques second
Existential Therapy therapist can borrow techniques from other approaches
Existential Therapy diagnosis, testing, and external measurements are not deemed important
Existential Therapy issues addressed are freedom and responsibility, isolation and relationships, meaning and meaninglessness
Person-centered Therapy approach uses few techniques but stresses the attitudes of the therapist and a way of being
Person-centered Therapy therapists strive for active listening, reflection of feelings, clarification, and being there for the client
Person-centered Therapy does not include diagnostic testing, interpretation, taking a case history, or questioning/probing for information
Gestalt Therapy wide range of experiments are designed to intensify experiencing and to integrate conflicting feelings
Gestalt Therapy experiments are co-created by therapist and client through an I/Thou dialogue
Gestalt Therapy therapists have latitude to creatively invent their own experiments
Gestalt Therapy formal diagnosis and testing are not a required part of therapy
Adlerian Therapy applicable to parent-child counseling, couples and families, individual (all ages), correctional, rehab, group, substance abuse, and brief counseling
Adlerian Therapy ideally suited to preventive care and alleviating a broad range of conditions that interfere with growth
Existential Therapy suited to people facing a developmental crisis or a transition in life or those seeking personal enhancement
Existential Therapy suited for people making choices, dealing with freedom/responsibility, coping with guilt and anxiety, making sense of life, and finding values
Existential Therapy applied to both individual and group counseling, couples, families, crisis intervention, community mental health work
Person-centered Therapy wide applicability to individual and groups
Person-centered Therapy well suited for initial phases of crisis intervention work
Person-centered Therapy applied to couple, families, community programs, admin/mgmt, and human relations
Person-centered Therapy useful approach for teaching, parent-child relations and working with diverse cultural groups
Gestalt Therapy useful for crisis intervention, treatment of psychosomatic disorders, couples, families, awareness training of mental health professionals, behavior problems in children, individuals and groups
Gestalt Therapy methods are powerful catalysts for opening up feelings and getting clients into contact with their present-centered experience
Adlerian Therapy focuses on social interest, helping others, collectivism, pursuing meaning of life, importance of family, goal orientation, and belonging is congruent with values of many cultures
Adlerian Therapy focus on person in the environment allows for cultural factors to be explored
Existential Therapy focus is on understanding client’s phenomenological world, including cultural background
Existential Therapy leads to empowerment in an oppressive society
Existential Therapy can help clients examine their options for change within the context of their cultural realities
Existential Therapy suited to counseling diverse clients due to philosophical foundation emphasizing the human condition
Person-centered Therapy focus is on breaking cultural barriers and facilitating open dialogue among diverse cultural populations
Person-centered Therapy main strengths are respect for clients’ values, active listening, welcoming of differences, nonjudgemental attitude, understanding, willingness to allow clients to determine what will be explored in sessions and prizing cultural plurism
Gestalt Therapy focus on expressing oneself nonverbally is congruent with cultures that look beyond words for messages
Gestalt Therapy provides many experiments in working with clients who have cultural injunctions against freely expressing feelings
Gestalt Therapy can help to overcome language barrier with bilingual clients
Gestalt Therapy focus on bodily expressions is subtle way to helps clients recognize conflicts
Adlerian Therapy approach’s detailed interview about one’s family background can conflict with cultures that have injunctions against disclosing family matters
Adlerian Therapy some clients view the counselor as an authority who will provide answers to problems, which conflicts with egalitarian, person-to-person spirit as a way to reduce social distance
Existential Therapy values of individuality, freedom, autonomy and self-realization often conflict with cultural values of collectivism, respect for tradition, deference to authority, and interdependence
Existential Therapy some multicultural clients may be deterred by the absence of specific techniques
Person-centered Therapy some of the core values in this approach may not be congruent with the client’s culture
Person-centered Therapy lack of counselor direction and structure are unacceptable for multicultural clients who are seeking help and immediate answers from a professional
Gestalt Therapy clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved may no embrace this approach
Gestalt Therapy some multicultural clients may not see how being aware of the present experience will lead to solving their problems
Adlerian Therapy key contributions is the influence on other systems and the integration of these concepts into various contemporary therapies
Adlerian Therapy one of the first approaches to therapy that was humanistic, unified, holistic, and goal-oriented that put an emphasis on social and psychological factors
Existential Therapy major contribution is recognition of the need for subjective approach based on a complete view of the human condition
Existential Therapy calls attention to the need for philosophical statement on what it means to be a person
Existential Therapy stress on the I/Thou relationship lessens the chances of dehumanizing therapy
Existential Therapy provides a perspective for understanding anxiety, guilt, freedom, death, isolation, and commitment
Person-centered Therapy clients take an active stance and assume responsibility for the direction of therapy
Person-centered Therapy unique approach has been subjected to empirical testing and as a result both theory and methods have been modified
Person-centered Therapy an open system
Person-centered Therapy people without advanced training can benefit by translating the therapeutic conditions to both their personal and professional lives
Person-centered Therapy basic concepts are straightforward and easy to grasp and apply
Person-centered Therapy foundation for building a trusting relationship, applicable to all therapies
Gestalt Therapy emphasis of direct experiencing and doing rather than on merely talking about feelings provides a perspective on growth and enhancement, not merely a treatment of disorders
Gestalt Therapy uses clients’ behavior as the basis for making them aware of their inner creative potential
Gestalt Therapy approach to dreams is unique, creative tool to help clients discover basic conflicts
Gestalt Therapy viewed as an existential encounter
Gestalt Therapy process-oriented, not technique oriented
Gestalt Therapy recognizes nonverbal behavior as a key to understanding
Adlerian Therapy weak in terms of precision, testability, and empirical validity
Adlerian Therapy few attempts have been made to validate the basic concepts by scientific methods
Adlerian Therapy tends to oversimplify some complex human problems and is based heavily on common sense
Existential Therapy many basic concepts are fuzzy and ill-defined, making its general framework abstract at times
Existential Therapy lacks a systematic statement of principles and practices of therapy
Existential Therapy has limited applicability to lower functioning and nonverbal clients and to clients in extreme crisis who need direction
Person-centered Therapy possible danger from the therapist who remains passive and inactive, limiting responses to reflection
Person-centered Therapy many clients feels a need for greater direction, more structure, and more techniques
Person-centered Therapy clients in crisis may need more directive measures
Person-centered Therapy applied to individual counseling, some cultural groups will expect more counselor activity
Gestalt Therapy techniques lead to intense emotional expression; if these feeling are not explored and if cognitive work is not done, clients are likely to be left unfinished and will not have a sense of integration of their learning
Gestalt Therapy clients who have difficulty using imagination may not profit from experiments
Adlerian Therapy does tend to focus of the self which may be problematic for collectivistic members
Adlerian Therapy some clients with pressing problems are hesitant to discuss other areas that they don’t see as being connected to their issue
Adlerian Therapy Moved away from Freud’s deterministic point of view and towards social-psychological and teleological (goal-oriented) view of nature – nurture is more significant that nature
Adlerian Therapy Where we are going is more important than where we came from
Adlerian Therapy We create ourselves rather than merely being shaped by our childhood experiences
Adlerian Therapy incorporates unity of personality – people can only be understood as integrated and complete beings
Adlerian Therapy The individual begins to form an approach to life somewhere in the first 6 years of age
Adlerian Therapy Humans are motivated primarily by social relatedness rather than by sexual urges
Adlerian Therapy the conscious is the focus of therapy
Adlerian Therapy Feelings of inferiority are normal and can be the wellspring of creativity, motivating us
Adlerian Therapy the first systematic approach – important to understand people within the systems they live in
Adlerian Therapy Dreams are a rehearsal of possible future courses of action
Adlerian Therapy Encouragement is central to all phases of counseling and suited to brief time limited therapy
Adlerian Therapy Very influential on other therapy systems and theories
Adlerian Therapy understanding the whole person; holistic concept that we cannot be understood in parts
Adlerian Therapy Experiences don’t define our personalities; the interpretation of experience does
Adlerian Therapy Community feeling embodies the feeling of being connected to all of humanity – past, present and future – and to being involved in making the world a better place
Adlerian Therapy We must master three universal life tasks: building friendships (social), establishing intimacy (love), and contributing to society (occupational)
Adlerian Therapy Dreikurs and Mosak added getting along with ourselves (self-acceptance) and developing our spiritual dimension
Adlerian Therapy holistic lifestyle assessment and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty assumptions
Adlerian Therapy Develop the client’s sense of belonging and to assist in the adoption of behaviors that match community interest
Adlerian Therapy Client’s problem arise because the conclusions based on their private logic often do not conform to the requirements of social living
Adlerian Therapy Purpose of therapy is to identify basic mistakes – learning how to correct faulty assumptions is central
Adlerian Therapy Client relationship is egalitarian based on cooperation, mutual trust, respect, confidence and goal alignment
Person-centered therapy Immediacy (addressing what is going on between client and therapist) is highly valued
Person-centered therapy Cognitive behavioral tasks occur naturally using this approach
Person-centered therapy High level of therapist self-development is not required
Person-centered therapy Assessment is frequently viewed as a prerequisite to the treatment process
Person-centered therapy Works with anxiety disorders, alcoholism, psychosomatic problems, agoraphobia, interpersonal difficulties, depression, cancer, and personality disorders
Person-centered therapy Works well in crisis intervention (unwanted pregnancy, illness, disastrous event or loss of loved one)
Person-centered therapy In groups, therapists should avoid making interpretative comments because it makes the group self-conscious and slows the process down
Person-centered therapy goals are towards the client achieving a greater degree of independence and integration
Existential Theory is a philosophical approach that influences a counselor’s therapeutic practice
Existential Theory grounded on the assumption that we are free and responsible for our choices and actions
Existential Theory rejects deterministic views
Existential Theory we are not passive victims, we are the architects of our lives
Existential Theory seeks a balance between recognizing the limits and tragic dimensions of human existence on one hand and the possibilities and opportunities of human life on the other hand.
Existential Therapy Understanding the client’s subjective world
Existential Therapy Invites clients to accept personal responsibility
Existential Therapy If clients blame others, therapist is likely to ask them how they contributed to the situation
Existential Therapy Assist clients to see the ways in which they constrict their awareness and the cost of such a restricted existence
Existential Therapy Getting a stuck person moving again while getting them to take ownership of their lives
Existential Therapy Core of client/therapist relationship is respect and the faith by the therapist in the client’s ability to cope authentically with their troubles and their ability to discover alternative ways of being
Existential therapy when applied to brief therapy may work if beneficial outcomes are likely which may or may not occur depending on what needs to be resolved.
Existential Therapy Fails to recognize social factors that cause human problems
Existential Therapy Some clients see little hope that external realities of racism, discrimination, and oppression will change even if they change internally which leads them to experience a deep sense of frustration and feelings of powerlessness
Existential Therapy Important to recognize survival issues
Existential Therapy In many cultures it is not possible to talk about self and self-determination apart from the context of social network and environmental conditions
Existential Therapy Client is responsible for the direction of therapy which may not be suitable for some clients
Existential Therapy Lacks a systematic statement of principles and practices
Existential Therapy Difficult to study and apply research
Existential Therapy practitioners reject the idea that the process can be measured and evaluated in quantitative and empirical ways
Existential Therapy hard to measure because it makes use of techniques from other theories
Existential Therapy High level of maturity, life experience, and intensive training is required of practitioners
Existential Therapy Goal is moving towards authenticity and learning to recognize when they are deceiving themselves
Existential Therapy it is a very deep approach and can take a while
Existential Therapy increased awareness is central role
Gestalt Therapy existential, phenomenological, and process based
Gestalt Therapy Understood in the context of the ongoing relationship with the environment
Gestalt Therapy Initial goal is to gain awareness and change will occur
Gestalt Therapy Focuses on here and now, the what and how, and the I/Thou of relating
Gestalt Therapy Clients are expected to do their own seeing, feeling, sensing, and interpreting
Gestalt Therapy Clients have the ability to self-regulate when they are aware of what is happening around them
Gestalt Therapy Growth occurs out of genuine contact between client and therapist
Gestalt Therapy Unification process of reowning parts of oneself that have been disowned proceed step by step until clients are strong enough to carry it on their own
Gestalt Therapy The more we work at becoming who or what we are not, the more we remain the same –authentic change occurs more from being who we are than from trying to be who we are not
Relational Gestalt Therapy stresses dialogue and relationship between client and therapist
Relational Gestalt Therapy More support and increased kindness and compassion
Gestalt Therapy works with culturally diverse populations if timed appropriately and used flexibly
Gestalt Therapy cultural clients might benefit from integrating polarities within themselves.
Gestalt Therapy Clear limitations with those clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved
Gestalt Therapy Does not place a premium on the role of the therapist as teacher
Gestalt Therapy Therapist must have a high level of personal development
Gestalt Therapy Therapist need to possess sensitivity, timing, inventiveness, empathy and respect for client
Contemporary Gestalt Therapy place less emphasis on resistance than early versions of because the terms are not congruent with the theory and practice
Gestalt Therapy all about observing what is happening versus making things happen
Adlerian therapy Stresses assuming responsibility, creating one’s own destiny, finding meaning and goals to create a purposeful life
Existential, Person-Centered, and Gestalt Therapy Experimental and Relationship-oriented therapies
Existential Therapy Reacting against tendency to view therapy as system of well-defined techniques
Existential Therapy Focuses on the quality of person-to-person therapeutic relationship
Existential Therapy Stresses the divergent methods of understanding the subjective world of a person
Person-centered Therapy Quality of the client-therapist relationship is prime determinant of therapeutic outcome
Person-centered Therapy Developed as a nondirective reaction against psychoanalysis
Person-centered Therapy assumes that clients have the capacity for self-direction without active therapist’s intervention or direction
Gestalt therapy Therapists take an active role, yet follow the lead provided by clients
Person-Centered Therapy Clients come to recognize that they have lost contact with themselves by using facades
Gestalt Therapy The past will make regular appearances in the present moment, usually because of some lack of completion of that past experience
Gestalt Therapy Important to pay attention to body language and to speaking habits and language patterns
Gestalt Therapy Not focused on predetermined goals but attending to the basic goal of gaining greater awareness and with it, greater choice
Gestalt Therapy Therapists share their personal experiences in relevant and appropriate ways; they do not manipulate clients
Gestalt Therapy Confrontation is used at times but does not have to be viewed as a harsh attack; it can be done is ways that clients are invited to examine their behaviors, attitudes, and thoughts
Created by: CatMarWar on 2012-03-02



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