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# Quarter 1 Week 8

### Vocabulary from Quarter 1 Week 8

Speed Distance/time (i.e. 35 meters/second, or 25 mph)
Velocity Distance/time and direction (i.e. 35 meters/second North)
Acceleration Distance/time and direction (i.e. 35 meters/second North). This applies if an item increases speed, decreases speed, or changes direction.
Newton's First Law an object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. aka: Law of Inertia
Newton's Second Law the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables - the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object.
Newton's Third Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Force a push or a pull exerted on an object
Friction forces that interact with an object to slow it down or stop it. It opposes motion. Includes – air resistance and rough surfaces
Unbalanced (or Net) Force The effort it takes to send an object into motion, stop its motion or change its direction. Net Force = mass x acceleration FNet = ma
Gravity The natural force of attraction exerted by a celestial body, such as Earth, upon objects at or near its surface, tending to draw them toward the center of the body.
Weight Mass x acceleration due to gravity. The heaviness of an object. The force with which a body is attracted to Earth or another celestial body, equal to the product of the object's mass and the acceleration of gravity.
Energy is the ability to do work. It is the force exerted through a distance to move an object. That can be written as Energy = Force x distance and is measured in Joules (J)
Law of Conservation of Energy Objects can “gain or lose” energy when work is being done on them. BUT, energy is never truly lost; it is just transferred from one object to another or changed to a different form of energy
Kinetic Energy Active energy... or energy related to the motion of the object. KE=1/2 m x v2
Potential Energy Stored Energy
Thermal Energy form of energy caused by the random vibrations and motion of atoms and molecules in matter
Heat the transfer of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature.
Temperature the measure of the average amount of thermal (kinetic) energy of the molecules in a certain sample of a substance (examples: cup of water, water in the swimming pool, air in a room, serving of ice cream)
Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy  from one substance to another by direct contact (collision of molecules). This occurs best in solids and also in liquids
Convection Convection is when thermal energy is transferred by means of up-and-down movements. Most often occurs in liquid and gases.
Radiation Convection is when thermal energy is transferred by means of up-and-down movements. Most often occurs in liquid and gases.
Exothermic (Exo = exit , thermic = heat) Thermal energy is released during an exothermic reactions because there is more energy lost (in forming bonds) than gained (in bond breaking).
Endothermic [Endo = in (enter), thermic = heat/thermal energy] Thermal energy is absorbed during the reaction because the energy needed to break the bonds of the reactants is greater than the energy needed to form the bonds of the products.
Nuclear Energy The energy released from the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear reaction – a change in the identity of or the characteristics of an atomic nucleus
Fission Releases energy by splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller nuclei of approximately equal mass
Fusion Releases energy by combining two ustable atomic nuclei into one Larger stable nuclei.
Wave is a traveling disturbance that carries energy from one place to another.
Amplitude the height of the wave, the perpendicular measure from the “at rest” horizontal line to the crest
Wavelength the distance between either two adjacent crests or two adjacent troughs
Frequency the number of complete waves per unit of time – that is, vibrations per second of the molecule
Electromagnetic spectrum is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves arranged according to frequency and wavelength
Seismic Waves Waves that travel through Earth’s interior, most often as a result of earthquakes and plate boundary interactions.
Reflection When a ray of light strikes a plane mirror. It involves a change of direction of the light ray.
Refraction The bending of waves (a change of direction) due to the change of speed as the wave travels from one medium to another
Diffraction The bending or spreading of waves when they interact with the edge or an obstacle.
Interference When two or more waves superimpose (arrive at the same place at the same time) resulting in a new wave pattern.
Constructive Interference the crest of one wave meets with the crest of the other wave
Destructive Interference the crest on one wave meets the trough of the other wave
Created by: mathewsecot