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A form of electromagnetic radiation? X-Ray
This is also useful for detecting some disorders involving soft tissue? X-Ray
Nuclear scanning test, that identifies new areas of bone growth or bone break down? Bone Scan
Radioactive tracer injected in vein is used during a? Bone Scan
Used to evaluate possible bone tumors, Fx, and infections Bone Scan
Creates a 3D image from multiple x ray images. CT Scan
uses IV contrast medium to provide better images CT Scan
proviedes greater clarity than x-rays on internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels? CT Scan
Uses strong Magnetic field, no radiation, pt. with some metal implants cant have this test done. MRI
has much greater soft tissue contrast than CT Scan MRI
measures the electrical impulses of muscles at rest during contraction EMG
Used to detect electrical activity that can occur in many diseases and conditions EMG
Minimally invasive surgical procedure in which and examination (and sometimes treatment of damage) of the interior of a joint is performed. Arthroscopy
allows analysis of fluid for signs of inflammation, bleeding, and infection. synovial fluid aspiration
serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone. Blood Tests May indicate metabolic changes.
serum creatine kinase (ck) Blood Test Elevated in many muscle diseases.
Is an enzyme importany for energy storage, leaks out of damaged muscle cells into body fluids Creatine Kinase
A bone is broken to form to or more seperate peices Complete Fx
Bone is only partially broken Incomplete Fx
the shafte of the bone is bent tearing the bone on one side but not extending all the way through Green Stick Fx (incomplete Fx)
results when the skin is broken, more damage to soft tissue Open Fx (compound)
Skin is not brken at the Fx Site Closed Fx
Single Break in the bone in which the bone ends maintain their alignment and position Simple Fx
There are multiple Fx lines and bone fragments Comminuted Fx
when a bone is crushed or collapses into small pieces (common in vertebrae) Compression Fx
when one end of the bone is forced into the adjacent bone Impacted Fx
Results from weakness in the bone structure Pathologic FX
results from repeated excessive stress Stress FX
occurs in the skull, when the broken section is forced inward on the brain. Depressed Fx
Fracture across the bone Transverse Fx
A Break along the axis of bone Linear Fx
Fracture at an angle to the diaphysis Oblique Fx
Facture that angles around the bone (usually due to a twisting injury) Spiral Fx
fracture of the distal radius at the wrist, often from falling on outstretched hand Colles' fracture
fracture of the lower fibula due to excesssive stress on the ankle pott's fracture
fracture of the 5th metatarsal Jones Fracture
when a bone breaks, bleeding occurs from the blood vessels in the bone and periosteum
bleeding and inflammation develop around the bone because of soft tissue damage
forms in the medullary canal, under the periosteum, and between the ends of the bone fragments. Hematoma (clot)
serves as the basis for a fibrin network into which granulation tissue grows Hematoma
form new cartilage Chondroblasts
during bone repair bone ends are splinted together by a fibrocartilaginous Callus (gradually replaced by bone)
osteoblasts begin to generate new bone
in children fractures heal in approxiately 1 month
in adults heal in approx 2 or more months
many casts are on for around 6 weeks
muscle spasms, infections, and ischemia are all complications of the healing process
may develope shortly after fx when there is more extensive inflammation (crush Fractures) Compartment syndrome
increased pressure of fluid within fascia, the nonelastic covering of muscles (causes servere pain and ischemia or necrosis of muscle) Compartment syndrome
risk when fatty marrow escapes from bone marrow into vein within 1st week after injury fat emboli
more common in fracture of pelvis or long bones, especially if not well immobilized after injury fat emboli
can travel to lungs and cause obstruction, extensive inflammation, and respiratory distress fat emboli
can occur with severe trauma or tearing of perisoteum nerve damage
may result if bone is not stabilized with ends closely aproximated and aligned falure to heal
fractures at or near a joint can cause long term effects such as osteoarthritis or stunted growth
grating sound heard if ends of bone fragments move over each other Crepitus
ORIF open reduction internal fixation
casts, splints, traction immobilization
application of force or weight pulling on limb that is opposed by body weight. traction
force maintains alignment of bones, prevents muscle spasms, and immobilizes the limb traction
seperation of two bones at a joint with loss of contact between the articulationg bone surfaces dislocations
if bone is only partially displaced subluxation
tear in a ligament sprain
tear in a tendon, muscle strain
ligaments or tendons completely separated from their bony attachment avulsion
a tendont or ligament requires this amount of time to become strong again 6 weeks
most repetitive strain injuries involve upper body
repetitive strain injuries age range 30 - 50
repetitive strain injuries caused by repetitive jobs (high stress levels)
strain injuries signs and symptoms pain, weakness, numbness (clumsy with hands)
common metabolic bone disorder osteoporosis
more common in women osteoporosis
bone resorption exceeds bone formation osteoporosis
osteoclast activity is greater than osteoblast osteoporosis
leads to fragile bones subject to spontaneous fracture osteoporosis
asymptomatic - back pain is common sign osteoporosis
kyphosis and scoliosis common osteoporosis
calcium intake in the child and young adult is critical to maintaining bone mass later in life. osteoporosis
postmenopausal, senile, idiopathic primary osteoporosis
following specific primary disorder (crushing syndrom) secondary osteoporosis
results from deficit of vitamin d and poshphates rickets & osteomalacia
bow legs, childs height usually below normal rickets in children
in adults, results in soft bones and compression fractures osteomalacia
progressive bone disease that occurs in adults older than 40 pagets disease
majority of primary tumors are malignant bone tumors
common site of secondary tumors, in spine and pelvis bone tumors
malignant neoplasm that usually develops in the metaphysis of the femur, tibia, or fibula in children and young adults osteosarcoma
malignant neoplasm common in adolescents that occurs in the diaphysis of long bones ewings sarcoma
both (osteosarcoma/ewings sarcoma) can cause pathologic fractures and metasize of lungs 5 year survival rate 30%
group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of skeletal muscle muscular dystrophy
disorders differ in type of inheritance, are affected, age at onset, ad rate of progression muscular dystrophy
most common muscualar dystrophy duchenne's
metabolic defect leads to degeneration and necrosis of muscle cells muscular dystrophy
skeletal muscle fibers are replaced by fat and fibrous connective tissue muscular dystrophy
cardiomyopathy is common muscular dystrophy
early signs appear at age 3, motor weakness and regression become evident muscular dystrophy
initial weakness in the pelvi girdle cause a waddling gait muscular dystrophy
gowers manuever is common muscular dystrophy
weakness spread to muscle groups, tendon reflex reduced, respitory insufficiency and infections are common signs and symptoms muscular dystrophy
death usually by age 20 from respitory or cardiac failure muscular dystrophy
group of disorders characterized by pain and stiffness effecting muscles tendons, and surrounding soft tissue. not joints fibromalgia
18 trigger points where pain and tenderness is may be stimulated have been identified fibromalgia
higher in women 20-50 years old, sleep deprivation, stress, fatique. fibromalgia
wear and tear arthritis - degenerative osteoarthritis
1 in 3 adults in the US have some degree of OA
men are effected more then women OA
eventually subchondrial bone exposed and damaged OA
peices of osteophytes and cartilage break off into synovial cartilage OA
primary form is idiopathic OA
secondary is from injury or abuse OA
once cartilage is damaged frictionless surface of articular cartilage lost OA
pain, joint movement limited, walking becomes difficult, creptius may be heard. OA
autoimmune disease, causeing chronic systemic inflammatory disease RA
1% or more of population is effected RA
higher incidence in women than men, and increases in older individuals RA
remissions and exacerbation lead to progressive damage to the joints. RA
insidiously with bilateral involvment of the small joints such as the fingers, followed by inflammation and destruction of additional joints RA
1st step is abnormal immune resonse, cause red swollen painfull joints. RA
after 1st period of acute inflammation, joint may appear to recover fully, RA
Synovitis inflammation recurs, synovial cells proliferate
pannus formation granulation tissue from synovium spreads over articular capsule
carilage erosion eroded by enzymes from pannus, pannus also cuts off nutrients
fibrosis pannus between bone ends become fibrotic, limits movement
anklosis joints fixation and deformity
seems to be linked to several viral infections RA
developes in a single joint infectous (septic) Arthritis
causes of infectious septic arthritis bacteria, lyme disease
agressive antimicrobial is treament for Infectious septic arthritis
most common in men older than 40 gout
results from deposits of uric acid and urate crystals in joint gout
usually effects a single joint gout
chronic progressive inflammatory condition anklosing spondylitis
affects the sacroillac (SI) joints, intervebral spaces, and costoverbral joints of the axial skeleton anklosing spondylitis
usually developes in those 20-30 years old anklosing spondylitis
vertebral joints first become inflamed anklosing spondylitis
fribrosis and calcification/fusion of the joints then occurs anklosing spondylitis
inflammation ocurrs in SI joints and prgresses up the spine anklosing spondylitis
initially low back pain, morning stiffness, pain often worse when laying down anklosing spondylitis
as calcification develops the spine becomes more rigid, and motion is impaired anklosing spondylitis
1/3 of individuals develop systemic signs, fatique, fever, weight loss anklosing spondylitis
Created by: spo444