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Apologia GS #11

The skeleton, muscles and the skin The three components of your body’s superstructure
axial skeleton the portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk.
Appendicular skeleton the portion of the skeleton that has the limbs attached to it.
Exoskeleton a body covering, typically made of chitin, for protection and support which invertebrates have.
Phototropism the tendency for plants to grow and move facing the sunlight.
Gravitropism the tendency for plants to sense which way is up and grow that way.
Epidermis outer layer of your skin.
Dermis inner layer of your skin.
Hypodermis composed of mostly fat, below the dermis, binds the skin together.
Symbiosis The relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
Scapula The shoulder blade
Humerus The bone of the upper arm
Radius & ulna The two bones of the lower arm
Femur The thighbone
Patella The knee cap
Tibia & fibula The two bones of the lower leg
Sternum The bone that joins the ribs together
Clavicle The collar bone
Skull The bone that makes up most of the head
Vertebrae The bones that make up the backbone
206 The number of bones in the adult human body
Invertebrates Animals with no backbone
Endoskeleton The internal structure that supports vertebrate’s bodies
Voluntary muscles They type of muscles you can control
Joints The part of the skeleton that allows movement
Hinge joints Elbows and knees have this type of joint
Saddle joint The ankle has this type of joint
Ball and socket joint The hips and shoulder have this type of joint
Washer joint Only the backbone has this type of joint
Cartilage Bones are coated with this tough, flexible substance so they do not rub against each other
Ligaments Two bones are joined together with this strip of tissue
Tendons These bands joint muscle to bone
Involuntary muscles These muscles control movements of your body that are a normal part of life with no thought on your part
Hair This grows on your skin from follicles and has two main functions: insulation and sensation
Sebaceous glands This part of the skin produces an oil that softens the hair and the skin
Skin This large organ is your body’s primary line of defense
Sweating This process cools the skin
Beneficial bacteria & fungi These organisms live on your skin
Mammal This is an animal that has skin that produces hair
Bird This is an animal that has skin that produces feathers
Reptile or fish This is an animal that has skin that produces scales
Amphibian This is an animal that has skin through which it can breathe
Arthropod If an organism’s skin is an exoskeleton, the organism is called this.
Created by: pinetreeacademy