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Micro Exam 3

CH 6,7,8,9

Adapting to high salt concentrations, which are required for growth Extreme halophile
The general term used for organisms capable at growth at 0C. Psychophiles
Capable of growth at high temperatures; 50-60C Thermophiles
Used in a media to nuetralize acid Buffer
A phenomenon that occurs when bacteria are placed in high salt concentrations Plasmolysis
Term used in text organsims that grow well at refrigerator temperatures; optimum growth is at 20-30C Psychotrophs
Microbes that grow better at high CO2 concentrations Capnophiles
Members of the archea with an optimum growth temperature of 80C Hyperthermophiles
The matrix that makes up a biofilm Hydrogel
The most common microbes; their optimum temperatures are at 25-40C Mesophiles
Most bacteria grow best within a narrow pH range near neutrality pH of 6.5-7.5
These bacteria are responsible for acid fermentations, and are remarkably tolerant to acidity. acidophiles
These do not require high salt concentrations, but they are able to grow in salt concentrations as high as 15% Facultative halophile
An enzyme acting upon hydrogen peroxide. Catalase
Rhizobium bacteria do this in symbiosis with leguminous plants. Nitrogen fixation
Requires atmospheric oxygen to grow Obligate aerobe
Requires atmospheric oxygen, but in lower than normal concentrations Microaerophile
Does not use oxygen, but grows readily in its presence Aerotolerant anaerobe
Does not use oxygen and usually finds it toxic Obligate anaerobe
Important source of energy, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur requirements in complex media Peptones
A complex polysaccharide derived from marine seaweed. Agar
Breaks down hydrogen peroxide without generation of oxygen Perioxidase
Formed in cytoplasm by ionizing radition Hydroxyl radical
An enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen an water catalase
The toxic form of oxygen neutralized by superoxide dismutase Superoxide radicals
A component added to some culture media that makes the Petri plate into a self-contained anaerobic chamber Oxyrase
Synonym for superoxide anions Superoxide
Isolation method for getting pure cultures; uses an innoculating loop to trace a pattern of inoculumn on a solid medium Streak Plate
Colonies grow on agar surface for identification Spread Plate
Used to increase the number of small minority of microorganisms in a mixed culture to arrive at a detectable level of microorganisms Enrichment culture
Preservation method that uses quick- freezing and a high vacuum Deep-freezing
Accumulations of microbes large enough to see without a microscope Colonies
Microbes added to initiate growth Inoculum
This makes it easier to distinguish colonies of the desired organism from other colonies growing on the same plate. Differential media
These are designed to supress the growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the growth of the desired microorganisms. Selective media
Usual laboratory designation for safe handling of tuberculosis bacteria BSL-3
Laboratory designation for the most dangerous microorganisms, personal wear "space suits" BSL-4
A routine microbiology teaching laboratory would be designated as this BSL-1
New cell numbers balance by death or cells Stationary Phase
No cell division, but intense metabolic activity Lag Phase
A logarithmic plot of the population produces an ascending straight line Log Phase
Used to grow obligate anaerobes Reducing media
Designed to supress the growth of unwanted bacteria and to encourage growth of desired microbes Selective media
Generally contain ingrediants such as sodium thioglycolate that chemically combine with dissolved oxygen Reducing media
Nutrients are digests or extracts; axact chemical composition varies slight from batch to batch. Complex media
A few bacteria and the photosynthesizing ___ are able to use gaseous nitrogen directly from the atmosphere cyanbacteria
Osmotic effects are roughly related to the ___ of molecules in a given volume of solution number
A complex medium in liquid form called nutrient ___ broth
For preservation by ___, a pure culture of microbes is placed in a suspending liquid and quick-frozen at -50 to -95 C Deep-Freezing
Bacteria usually reproduce by ___ ___ binary fission
Turbidity is recorded in a spectrohotometer as ____ absorbancy
The growth of filamentous organisms such as fungi is often best recorded by means of ___ ___ dry weight
___ anaerobes grow more efficiently aerobically than they do anaerobically. Faculative
___ halophiles do not require high salt concentrations, but they are able to grow at salt concentrations that may inhibit the growth of many other bacteria Faculative
Examples of buffers are ___ ___,___ and ___ ___ phosphate salts---peptones--- amino acids
Any nutrient material prepared for the growth of bacteria in a laboratory is called a ___ ___ culture media
Agar melts at about the boiling point of water but remains liquid until the temperature drops to about __C 40 C
Dilutions of a bacteria mixture are poured into a Petri dish and mixed with melted agar. This plate-counting method is called the ___ ___ ___ pure plate method
Partially digested protein products used in complex media are called ___ Peptone
To grow obligate intracellular parasites such as rickettsias and chlamydias, it is usually necessary to provide ___ ___ ___ living host cells
The general term for tests that estimate microbial growth by the time required for them to deplete oxygen in the medium is ___ tests. reduction
The ___ growth temperature is that at which the organism grows best optimum
When a single colony arises from a clump of bacteria, it is recorded as an ___ ___ ___ colony forming unit
The term trace elements refers to: small mineral requirements
What temperature would most likely kill a mesophile? 60C
What are characteristics of a biolfilm? ---antibiotic resistant ---hydrogel ---quorum sensing
What type of medium would not be used to culture aerobes? reducing media
An organism that peroxidase and superoxide dismutase but lacks catalase is most likely an: aerotolerant anaerobes
A suffix meaning to kill -cide
Destroying or removing all forms of microbial life Sterilization
The absence of pathogens on an object or area Asepsis
The reduction of microbial population to safe public health levels Sanitization
The removal of transient microbes from skin by mechanical cleaning or by antiseptic. Degerming
Heat sufficiant only to kill endospores of the botulism bacterium Commercial Sterilization
A suffix used fro the inhibition of growth anf multiplication of bacteria -stat
The chemical disinfection of living tissue antisepsis
The destruction of vegetative pathogens on a surface, usually with chemicals disinfection
The lowest temerpature required to kill a liquid culture of a certain species of bacteria in 10 minutes Thermal death point
The time in minutes required to kill 90% of a bacterial population Decimal reduction time
Mild heating to destory particular spoilage organisms or disease organisms in milk or similar products Pasteuriztion
A test for the effectiveness of a chemical disinfectant Phenol coefficient
The absence of water, resulting in a condition of dryness Desiccation
The length of time required to kill all bacteria in a liquid culture at a given temperature Thermal Death Time
Ethylene oxide Gaseous chemosterillizer
Sodium hypochlorite Halogen
Copper Sulfate Heavy Metal
Silver Nitrate Heavy Metal
Benzalonium chloride Quanternary ammonium compound
Acid-anionic detergents Surface- active agents
Sorbic acid Organic Acid
Benzoyl peroxide Oxidizing agent
Hexachlorophene Bisphenol
Isopropanol Alcohol
An effective liquid sporicide Parecetic acid
A bacteriocin classified as an antibiotic Nisin
Pimaricin Natamyclin
A biguanphenol found in many household products Triclosan
An antibiotic antifungal Natamycin
Added to chlorine to form chloramines Ammonia
An antibacterial effect of ultraviolet radiation on DNA Thymine dimmer
Formaldehyde in an aqueous solution Formalin
An example would be iodine in an aqeous-alcohol solution Tincture
For example, povidone-iodine solution Iodophore
Chlorine in a tablet form issued as a water purifier by the US military Sodium dichloroisocyanurate
Name of a test that determines if milk has been properly pasteurized. Phosphate
Used as an antiseptic in certain mouthwashes Zinc chloride
Used in many water treatment plants as a disinfectant; produced by electrical discharges at the site Ozone
Antifungal organic compound used for food Sodium benzoate
Ingredient in antidanddruff shampoo Zinc pyrithione
Ultraviolet light is an example of ___ radiation nonionizing
Sunlight owes it biocidal activity mainly to the formation of ___ oxygen. singlet
A good example of ionizing radiation is___, ___, ___ x-rays---gamma rays--- electron beams
Ethanol is usually used in a concentration of about ___% 70%
A less irritating form of formaldehyde is ____ Glutaldehyde
A compound that would only inhibit the growth of a fungus would be a fungi-___. stat
Steam ___ ___ allows temperatures above boiling to be reached under pressure
Steam under pressure is obtained in retorts, pressure cookers, and ___. autoclaves
Supercritical ___ is used for decontaminating foods and medical implants carbon dioxide
Generally speaking, the group of organisms that is more resistant to osmotic pressure than bacteria is ___ fungi
What process does not kills endospores? pasteurization
What is the most effective for sterilizing mattresses and plastic petri dishes? ethylene oxide
What disinfectants act by disrupting the plasma membrane? ---Phenolics---Phenol---Quaternary Ammonium comound---biguandines
What can be used to sterilize a heat-labile solution stored in a plastic container D Gamma radiation---ethylene oxide---nonionzing radiation---short wavelenght radiation
What are characteristics of quaternary ammonium compounds? B bacterial against gram-positive bacteria---amoebicidal-fungicidal---kills enveloped viruses
What is used to control microbial growth in foods? organic acids
Created by: 100000187424952