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micro biology


Phylogenetics -Each species retains some characteristics of its ancestor -Grouping organisms according to common properties implies that a group of organisms evolved from a common ancestor .Anatomy .Fossils .rRNA Morphological characteristics Useful for identifying eukaryotes
Taxonomy -The science of classifying organisms -Provides universal names for organisms -Provides a reference for identifying organisms Differential staining Gram staining, acid-fast staining
Prokaryotic species A population of cells with similar characteristics Culture: Grown in laboratory media Clone: Population of cells derived from a single cell Strain: Genetically different cells within a clone Biochemical tests Determines presence of bacterial enzymes
Eukaryotic species A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves Serology -Agglutination occurs in a positive sample -Combine known antiserum plus unknown bacterium
Animalia Multicellular; no cell walls; chemoheterotrophic Identification Matching characteristics of an “unknown” organism to lists of known organisms. -Clinical lab identification
Plantae Multicellular; cellulose cell walls; usually photoautotrophic ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay -Known antibodies -Unknown type of bacterium -Antibodies linked to enzyme
Fungi Chemoheterotrophic; unicellular or multicellular; cell walls of chitin; develop from spores or hyphal fragments Flow Cytometry -Uses differences in electrical conductivity between species -Fluorescence of some species -Cells selectively stained with antibody plus fluorescent dye
Viral species Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche Nucleic Acid Hybridization -complete hybridization: Identical -partial hybridization: Related -no hybridization: unrelated
Classification Placing organisms in groups of related species. Lists of characteristics of known organisms. Domain Bacteria -Proteobacteria:From the mythical Greek god Proteus, who could assume many shapes
The Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsia - Rickettsia: Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers -R. rickettsii: Rocky Mountain spotted fever -Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the deadliest tick fever Alphaproteobacteria: Agrobacterium Insert a plasmid into plant cells, inducing a tumor
The Alphaproteobacteria:Nitrogen-fixing bacteria -Azospirillum -Rhizobium The Betaproteobacteria -Bordetella: B. pertussis -Burkholderia: Cepacia-common in CF patients Cystic fibrosis
The Gammaproteobacteria :Pseudomonadales -Pseudomonas: -Opportunistic pathogens -Metabolically diverse -Polar flagella -Common in CF patients The Gammaproteobacteria :Legionellales -Legionairres Disease -L. pneumophilia -30% mortality rate more common in older man
The Gammaproteobacteria :Vibrionales -Vibrio cholerae causes cholera -Still kills a lot in 3rd world countries Through excessive lose of chloride ion The Epsilonproteobacteria:-Helicobacter -H. pylori -Helicobacter -H. pylori: Multiple flagella Peptic ulcers Stomach cancer
Clostridiales: Clostridium Endospore-producing Obligate anaerobes Chlamydias: Chlamydia trachomatis -Trachoma: common form of blindness -STI, urethritis
Yeasts -Unicellular fungi -Fission yeasts divide symmetrically -Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically Sexual Reproduction: Three phases -Plasmogamy: Haploid donor cell nucleus (+) penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell (–) -Karyogamy: + and – nuclei fuse -Meiosis: Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores)
Ascomycota Sac fungi Fungal Diseases (Mycoses): 5 Mycoses -Systemic mycoses: Deep within body -Subcutaneous mycoses: Beneath the skin -Cutaneous mycoses: Affect hair, skin, and nails -Superficial mycoses: Localized, e.g., hair shafts -Opportunistic mycoses: Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi
Lichens -Mutualistic combination of an alga (or cyanobacterium) and fungus -Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates; fungus provides holdfast Three Types of Lichens -Fruticose -Folios -Crustose
Rhodophyta Red algae Chlorophyta Green algae
Diatoms -Pectin and silica cell walls -Unicellular -Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthophylls -Store oil -Fossilized diatoms formed oil -Produce domoic acid Dinoflagellates -Red Tied -Cellulose in plasma membrane -Unicellular -Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins -Store starch -Some are symbionts in marine animals -Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning
Oomycota -Water molds -Cellulose cell walls -Multicellular -Chemoheterotrophic -Produce zoospores Archaezoa Giardia lamblia: Gastrointestinal infection
Amoebozoa Entamoeba: Ammebic=Dysentory- Euglenozoa Trypanosoma spp. -Sleeping sickness:African sleepning sickness and affects the brain -Chagas’ disease: -near the Aztecs -destroys heart
The Heartworm Dirofilaria immitis The heartworm is a type of filaria, a small thread-like worm Arthropods as Vectors -May transmit diseases (vectors) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs) Class: Insecta (6 legs) Lice, fleas, mosquitoes Class: Arachnida (8 legs) Mites and ticks
Arthropods as Vectors -Mechanical transmission -Biological transmission :Microbe multiplies in vector -Definitive host :Microbe’s sexual reproduction in vector General Characteristics of Viruses -Obligatory intracellular parasites -Host range is determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors
Protista A catchall kingdom for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms -Grouped into clades based on rRNA DNA Chip Technology Red:gene normal cells Green:mutated gene tumor Yellow: in both cells
Created by: jsmiron