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Autonomic NS

Stack #86124

QuestionAnswer
Q. List the 3 neuroeffector tissues innervated by GVE neurons. A. Cardiac m., smooth m. and glands
Q. List the divisions of the ANS. A. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic
Q. What is a ganglion? A. a collection of neuron cell bodies outside of the CNS
Q. Where do I find pregang. neuron cell bodies of the ANS? A. Sympathetic = Thoracolumbar - Lateral horn (GVE) T1-L2 spinal segments Parasympathetic = Craniosacral - brain stem & sacral segments S2,3,4
Q.Where do I find efferent (motor)neuron cell bodies of the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system? Ventral horn of the spinal chord
Q.Where do I find postgang. neuron cell bodies of the ANS? Outside the CNS - in the termial/peripheral ganglia
Q.What is the primary function of the ANS? Maintain Homeostasis - increase or decrease activity of visceral organs & skin in response to changes
Q.What are the 3 types of autonomic ganglia and which divisions of the ANS is each assoc. with? 1)Paravertebral Gang.(symp.)-lateral to VC 2)Prevertebral Gang. (symp.) -ant. to VC 3)Terminal Gang. (parasymp.) -close to or in wall of organ innervated
Q.Where are the various autonomic ganglia located and know the names of the major autonomic ganglia? 1)parav. gang. -C1-S3 2)prev. gang. -i.Celiac gang. (spinal segments T4-T9)ii. Aorticorenal gang. (ss T9-T12) iii. Sup. & Inf. Messenteric gang. (lower ss) 3)Terminal gang.-next to tissue/organ innervate (ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, otic gang
Q. What is an autonomic plexus? network of interlaced nn. that arise from ANS (tympanic, pharyngeal, cardiac, pulmonary, celiac, sup.&inf. hypogastric
Q. What are splanchnic nerves? neurons that pass thru the symp. trunk of ganglia w/ out synapsing
Q. Know th specific locations of sympathetic pregang. GVE neuron cell bodies in the CNS. Thoracolumbar - lateral horn of T1-L2 ss.
Q. Sympathetic GVE neurons emerge form the spinal cord in the _____ roots of the spinal n. from spinal segments ____ to ____. Ventral, T1-L2
Q. Sympathetic preganglionic neuron fibers exit the spinal n. via the ___ to enter the ___ ganglia. White rami, parav. chain (symp. chain gang.)
Q. Once the sympathetic GVE neuron exits the spinal n. and enters the paravertebral ganglia, 1 of 4 things can happen. List them. 1)Synapse in parav. chain at the level of ent. 2)ascend/descend parav. chain & synapse w/ postgang. neuron cell body 3)Pass thru parav. chain in Thoracic part of trunk w/out synapsing(splannic n.) 4)pass thru parav. chain & synapse adrenal medulla(T10,11)
Sympathetic neurons, which exit the paravertebral ganglia to rejoin the spinal, do so via what structure? Gray Rami (On Ramp)
Q. Which spinal nn. have white rami communicantes assoc. with them and which spinal nn. have gray rami communicantes assoc. with them? Explain the diff. White - spinal n. T1 - L2 Gray - all spinal n. , Cl-coccyx
Q. What neurotransmitter is released from preganglionic sympathetic neurons? Ach & Acetyl CoA
Q. What enzyme inactivates the neurotransmitter released from pregang. sympathetic neurons? Acetylcholinesterase
Q. What neurotransmitter is released from the majority of postgang. sympathetic neurons? Catecholamines - norepinephrine
Q. Give me the names and locations of the enzymes, which inactivate the neurotransmitters, released from the majority of sympathetic postgang. neurons. MAO - inactivates catecholamines by oxidation; occurs in the preneuron axon boot 80% is brought back into neuron COMT - inactivates catecholamines by methylation; occurs in the synaptic space/cleft whis is about 20%
Q. Know the types and locations of adrenergic receptors. a) Alpha1-eye Alpha2-intestinal wall b)Beta1-heart Beta2-lungs
Q. List the 3 catecholamines. Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine
Q. What tissue releases epinephrine? Adrenal medulla (suprarenal gland)- converts norepi. into epi.
Q. Is epinephrine released from sympathetic postgang. neurons? No, only from Adrenal Gland
Q. Which postgang. symp. postgang. neurons release Ach? Postgang. symp. fibers that innervate eccrine sweat glands, blood vessels in skeletal m. & produce vasodilation
Q. What tissues are innervated by postgang. cholinergic neurons? Eccrine sweat glands, blood vessels in skeletal m.,eyes, lacrimal glands, parotid glands, sublingual g. submandibular g., smooth m. of stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, kidney, blood vessels, lungs, urinary bladder & penis
Q. Where, specifically, are the pregang. parasympathetic neuron cell bodies located in the CNS? Craniosacral - brainstem (the various nuclei) S2-4
Q. The cranial portion of the PNS innervates structures located where? Head, neck, thorax, & abdomen
Q. The sacral portion of the PNS innervates structurs located where? Lower abdomen & genitalia (pelvis) - descending colon, sigmoid colon, bladder, reproductive organs
Q. Which cranial n. transmit GVE fibers? CN III, VII, IX, X
Which spinal nn. carry parasympathetic GVE fibers? None
Q.Where are the nuclei, which give rise to GVE parasympathetic fibers located in the CNS? Brain stem
Q. Pregang. fibers from cell bodies located in the ___ are conveyed by the oculomotor n. and synapse in the ___ ganglion. Edinger Westphall Nucleus; Cilliary Gang.
Q. Postgang. neurons of the oculomotor n. innervates what structures and have what effect upon these tissues? Smooth mm. of the eye Parasymp. - constricts=ciliary & sphincter mm. of pupil Symp. - dialates=dialator m. of pupil
Q. Pregang. fibers from cell bodies located in the ___ are conveyed by the facial n. and synapse in the ___ ganglion. Superior salivatory nucleus; Pterygopalatine(sphenopalatine) gang. & submandibular gang.
Q. Postgang. neurons of the facial n. innervate what structures and have what effect upon these tissues? Lacrimal, submandibular & sublingual glands - secretion of fluids
Q. Pregang. fivers from cell bodies located in the ___ are conveyed by the glossopharyngeal n. and syapse in the ___ ganglion. inferior salivatory nucleus; otic gang.
Q. Postgang. neurons of the glossopharyngeal n. innervate what structures and have what effect upon these tissues? Parotid glands - increased secretion of fluids & salivation
Q. Pregang. fibers from cell bodies located in the ___ are conveyed by the vagus n. and synapse in the ___ ganglia. Dorsal motor nucleus of Vagus; terminal gang.
Q. Postgang. neurons of the vagus n. innervate what structures and have what effect upon these tissues? Visceral organ of abdomen & thorax -Heart-decrease HR and conduction lungs-constriction of bronchioles GI tract-increases GIT secretions Pancreas - stimulates exocrine secretions
Q. What neurotransmitter is released from postgang. parasympathetic neurons? AcH
Q. What enzyme inactivates the neurotransmitter released from pregang. parasympathetic neurons? Acetylcholinesterase
What neurotransmitter is rleased from postganglionic parasympathetic neurons & what enzyme inactivates that neurotransmitter? ACH (Acetylcholine); Acetylcholinesterase
Q. What enzyme inactivates the neurotransmitter released from postgang. parasympathetic neurons? Acetylcholinesterase
Q. Define cholinergic. a)choline activated or transmitted by choline (AcH) b)nerve cells that release or receptors which respond to AcH
Q. Define adrenergic. a)catecholamine activated or transmitted by catecholomines (primarily norepi.) b)neurons which release or receptors which respond to norepi. or epi.
Q. Where is the location of nicotinic receptors? Located on postganglionic neurons located in Autonomic Ganglia & on skeletal m. motore end plate (Myoneural Junction).
Q. Where is the location of muscarinic receptors? Located on neuroeffector tissues innervated by Autonomic Postganglionic Cholinergic fibers. (smooth m., cardiac m. & glands)
Q. What effect does stimulation of nicotinc receptors have? Release ACH, Norepinephrine.
Q. What effect does stimulationof muscarinic have? Parasympathetic Effects.
A. The ___ is considered to be the highest and main subcortical regulatory center forn the ANS. Hypothalmus
The centers, which monitor HR and BP , are located where? Medulla Oblongota
Q. Define anticholinergic, parasympatholytic, and sympathomimetic. Anticholinergic - antagonistic to the action of cholinergic receptors (e.g. atropine). Parasympatholytic - prevents parasympathetic = increased sympathetic. Sympathomimetic - mimics that of the sympathetic.
Q. What effect would a muscarinic blocker, like atropine, have upon HR, pupillary diameter, gut motility, GIT secretions, bronchial secretions, etc... Blocks parasympathetic effects: Heart Rate - increases; Pupils - dilate; Gut Motility - decreases; GIT Secretion - decreases; Broncial Secretions - decreases;
Q. What effect would a sympathomimetic drug have upon HR, pupillary diameter, gut motility, GIT secretions, bronchial secretions, etc... Definition - denoting mimicking of action of the sympathetic system. Heart Rate - increases; Pupils - dilate; gut motility - decreases; GIT Secretions - decreases; Bronchial Tree - dilates & constricts(???)
Q. Why are you unable to focus on objects up close after your eyes have been dilated at the ophthalmologist's office with an anticholinergic drug such as tropicamide (mydriacyl)? Causes paralysis of the ciliary mm. of eye (muscles of accomodation) = can't focus.
Q. Are there any parasympathetic fibers to the upper and lower limbs, and if so where are the pregang. neuron cell bodies located? No
Q. What is the diff. in the ratio of pre to postgang. fibers in the SNS vs the PNS? Sympathetic - 1 to many. Parasympathetic - 1 to 1.
Q. What effect does ANS input have upon skeletal muscle fibers, does it cause them to contract, relax, or have no effect. No direct effect.
Q. What effect would bilaterally cutting the vagus n. have upon HR, gut motility, and GIT secretions? No parasympathetic = increased HR, decreased gut motility, (parastolic???), decreased GIT secretions.
Q. Why is epinephrine given to patients in status asthmaticus or during anaphylactic shock? Anaphylaxis - contracts smooth m., constriction of bronci, & dilates capillaries, swell in throat. Epinephrine - most effective stimulant of adrenergic (α & ß) receptors, resulting in increased HR & force of contraction, bronchodilation (↓ swellg throat)
What is meant by dual autonomic innervation of a tissue and how is this used to control various bodily functions? Innervated by both Sympathetic & Parasympathetic NS. One acts to slow while other acts to speed up.
A male which a herniated disc in the region of L1-L2 which is compressing the spinal cord would have which sexual dysfunction; failure to ejaculate or failure to attain an erection? Why? Failure to ejaculate - because (L1-L2) is part of Sympathetic Nervous System which controls ejaculatin orgasm.
Created by: Allpurpose on 2007-07-31



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