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Anatomy-Chapter 15

The upper respiratory tract consists of the air passages of the nose, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, and upper trachea
The lower respiratory tract consists of the lower trachea and the lungs themselves, which include the bronchial tubes
The nasal cavities are separated by the nasal septum
The nasal mucosa lining is ciliated epithelium
Conchae Three shelf-like or scroll-like bones that project from the lateral wall of each nasal cavity
In the upper nasal cavities are the olfactory receptors
Paranasal sinuses air cavities in the maxillae, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones
The paranasal sinuses are lined with ciliated epithelium
The pharynx a muscular tube posterior to the nasal and oral cavities and anterior to the cervical vertebrae
Soft palate is elevated during swallowing to block the nasopharynx
Laryngopharynx open anteriorly into the larynx and posteriorly into the esophagus
Larynx Most often called the voice box
The largest cartilage of the larynx is the thyroid cartilage
Epiglottis the uppermost cartilage of the larynx
The vocal cords are on either side of the glottis, which is between them
Trachea is about 4 to 5 inches long and extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi; it is anterior to the esophagus.
The right and left primary bronchi are the branches of the trachea that enters the lungs
The further branching of the bronchial tubes is often called the bronchial tree
The smaller branches of the bronchial tree are called bronchioles
No ______ is present in the walls of the bronchioles cartilage
The smallest bronchioles terminate in clusters of _______, the air sacs of the lungs alveoli
The lungs are located on either side of the heart in the chest cavity and are encircled and protected by the rib cage
Hilus Where the primary bronchus and the pulmonary artery and veins enter the lung
The parietal pleura lines the chest wall
The visceral pleura is on the surface of the lungs
The functional units of the lungs are the air sacs called alveoli
Pulmonary surfactant a lipoprotein secreted by alveolar type II cells
Lipoprotein mixed with the tissue fluid within the alveoli and decreases its surface tension, permitting inflation of the alveoli
Ventilation the term for the movement of air to and from the alveoli
Diaphragm a dome-shaped muscle below the lungs
External intercostal muscles pull the ribs upward and outward
Internal intercostal muscles pull the ribs downward and inward
Atmospheric pressure the pressure of the air around us
Intrapleural pressure the pressure with the potential pleural space between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura
Intrapulmonic pressure The pressure with the bronchial tree and alveoli
Inspiration inhalation
Expiration exhalation
Tidal volume the amount of air involved in one normal inhalation and exhalation
Minute respiratory volume The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 minute
Inspiratory reserve The amount of air, beyond tidal volume, that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation
Expiratory reserve the amount of air, beyond tidal volume, that can be expelled with the most forceful exhalation
Vital capacity the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, and expiratory reserve
Residual air (volume) the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation; the average range is 1000 to 1500 mL
Alveolar ventilation the amount of air that actually reaches the alveoli and participates in gas exchange
Anatomic dead space The air still within the respiratory passages
Physiological dead space volume of non-functioning alveoli that decrease gas exchange
Compliance normal expansibility
External respiration the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
Internal respiration the exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the tissue fluid (cells) of the body
Partial pressure the pressure a gas exerts within a mixture of gases
Most oxygen is carried in the blood bonded to the hemoglobin in red blood cells
The mineral _______ is part of hemoglobin and gives this protein its oxygen-carrying ability iron
The respiratory centers are located in the medulla and pons
Within the medulla are the inspiration center and expiration center
The inspiration center automatically generates impulses in rhythmic spurts
The inspiration center activates expiration center
The expiration center generates impulses to the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles
The apneustic center prolongs inhalation
The pneumotaxic center interrupts the apneustic center and contributes to exhalation
Impulses from the ________ modify the output from the medulla hypothalamus
The _____ ______ enable us to voluntarily change our breathing rate or rhythm. cerebral cortex
Chemoreceptors detect changes in blood gases and pH.
Chemoreceptors are located in carotid and aortic bodies
Hypercania excess CO2
Respiratory acidosis When the rate or efficiency of respiration decreases, permitting carbon dioxide to accumulate in body fluids.
Respiratory alkalosis When the rate of respiration increases, and CO2 is very rapidly exhaled
Metabolic acidosis may be caused by untreated diabetes mellitus, kidney, disease, or severe diarrhea
Metabolic alkalosis may be caused ingestion of excessive amounts of alkaline medications such as those used to relieve gastric disturbances
Created by: akikoandpoog