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S2 Science Exam


Name the 5 characteristics of life. Reproduction, One or More Cells, Respond to Environment/Maintain Homeostasis, Growth & Development, and Obtain & Use Energy
Define Contains One or More Cells. characteristic which says that an organism must contain one or more of the smallest units of a living thing, which is a cell,
Give an examples for Contains One or More Cells Unicellular = bacteria Multicellular = dogs, trees
Explain the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic Cells have a nucleus, Prokaryotic Cells don't. All prokaryotes are unicellular
Name the 6 parts of the bacteria cell. DNA, Ribosomes, Cell Membrane, Flagellum or Cilia, Cell Wall, Cytoplasm.
What is a cell? A cell is the smallest unit of a living thing. or a… collection of living matter enclosed by a plasma membrane that separates it from environment
Explain the two types of cellular organisms Unicellular organisms are organisms with only one cell and multicellular organisms are organisms with more than one cell.
Give an example of cells. A tree is full of functional cells but when the wood is cut off from the tree, the piece of wood will have cells that are no longer functional.
What does the plasma membrane do? It surrounds the cell and separates it from its environment.
Define reproduction. Reproduction is the production of offspring.
Name and define the two basic kinds of reproduction. Give an example for each. Sexual reproduction requires two cells to unite to produce the new organism. (birds) Asexual is when a single organism can reproduce without needing another cell, for example they can divide themselves into two. (bacteria)
Define Growth and define Development. Growth is an increase in size. Development is all of the changes that take place in an organism's life.
How is the growth of a living thing different from the growth of a nonliving thing? give example The growth of a living thing is not forced, it happens by itself. The growth of a nonliving thing is forced. Ex. Snowball is nonliving and growth is forced.
Define energy. Energy is the ability to make things change.
Define Obtaining and Using Energy. Obtaining it is how the organism acquires it. Organisms use the energy to maintain balance, grow, reproduce, and other functions.
What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? Heterotrophs are organisms that get energy from the food they eat. Autotrophs are organisms that use energy from the sun to make their own food. --> use photosynthesis
Define Respond to Environment /Maintain Homeostasis. Organisms responding to changes in environment like water, temperature, other organisms, etc. Homeostasis = Balancing an organism's internal environment in order to survive
Give an 2 examples for homeostasis Maintaining body temperature, levels of water
Give an example for respond to environment Venus Fly trap
What is the cell wall? Rigid structure that supports and gives cell its shape, made of complex sugars, not found in animal cells.
What is the cell membrane. Protective barrier around cell, inside wall. Controls what goes in and out of the cell.
What is the cytoplasm? Watery material which contains many of the materials involved in cell metabolism.
What is endoplasmic reticulum? organelle, system of folded membranes, a pathway for transportation + storage
What are ribosomes? Where are they made? Ribosomes are organelles that make proteins. no membrane made in nucleolus
What is the MIGHTY mitochondria? It is the "powerhouse" of the cell. Breaks down sugar to produce energy. Site of cellular respiration + stores energy in ATP.
What is the nucleus? It is a large organelle command center that contains the cell's DNA (instructions). Has a double membrane + nucleolus in center.
What are nuclear pores? Control movement into and out of the nucleus.
What is the golgi complex? Organelle that modifies and packages proteins + lipids, uses vesicles to transport products
What are centrioles? Involved in cell division in animal cells.
What are lysosomes? organelles that contain digestive enzymes. get rid of waste materials.
What are chloroplasts? organelle that uses energy of sunlight to make food, Site of photosynthesis
What is a vesicle? A small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell + within a cell
What is the difference between the flagellum and cilia? The flagellum is one long, hairlike structure the cilia are the many hairlike structures.
What is a vacuole? Fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane that contains stored food or wastes.
Explain diffusion. The movement of particles from areas of high concentration to low concentration. (tries to balance areas)
Explain osmosis. The diffusion of water through semipermeable membrane.
Describe what happens in osmosis. The water molecules move to where they are less concentrated.
Why is osmosis important to cell functions. The concentration of particles is kept in balance by osmosis.
Describe what would happen if you put red blood cells into a salty solution. The concentration of water molecules inside the cell is higher than the concentration outside the cell. This makes water move out of the cell, causes the cells to shrivel.
What is passive transport? Movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy. high --> low concentration.
What is active transport? Movement of substances across the cell membrane with the use of energy. Usually low --> high concentration.
Explain endocytosis and exocytosis. (forms of active transport) In endocytosis 1. cell membrane surrounds a particle 2. encloses it in a vesicle 3. brings it into the cell. exocytosis 1. the particle is enclosed in a vesicle 2. Fuses with membrane 3. then released out of the cell
Define photosynthesis. Process in which plants + other organisms are able to change the sun's energy into food.
Where does almost all of the energy that fuels life come from? The sun.
What are pigments? What pigment is used in photosynthesis? The molecules in plant cells that absorb light energy. Chlorophyll used to absorb light energy
How do plants get their green color? From chlorophyll.
What is glucose? Glucose is a simple sugar/carbohydrate that is the plant's food, made from photosynthesis.
Explain why glucose is important to a plant cell. It converts the sun's energy to a type of energy that can be stored.
What happens in photosynthesis? Plants use light energy to change CO2 and water into food called glucose, oxygen is released
What is the formula for photosynthesis? 6CO^2 carbon dioxide + 6H^2O water+ light energy = (C^6 H^12 O^6) glucose + (6O^2) oxygen
What is cellular respiration? animal cells getting energy by breaking down food using oxygen
What is fermentation? animal cells getting energy by breaking down food without using oxygen
Why is breathing important to many organisms? Breathing supplies the oxygen need and gets rid of carbon dioxide.
Describe what takes places during cellular respiration. Cells use oxygen to break down glucose into water and CO2, energy is released.
What does your body do with the energy released during cellular respiration. Mostly used to maintain body temperature some for forming ATP.
What does ATP stand for and what is its function? Adenosine triphosphate, supplies energy that fuels cell activities.
Where does cellular respiration take place? Mitochondria.
Where does photosynthesis take place? Chloroplast.
What is the formula for cellular respiration? (C^6 H^12 O^6) glucose + (6C^2) oxygen = ATP + (6CO^2) carbon dioxide + 6H^2O (water)
During photosynthesis, plant cells use carbon dioxide to make glucose and release oxygen. How is this different from cellular respiration? In respiration oxygen is used to break down glucose while carbon dioxide is released. The processes are flipped.
Why do you get a burning sensation in your muscles during strenuous exercise? Muscle cells can't get the oxygen they need for cellular respiration so they use fermentation. it makes lactic acid that creates the burning sensation.
What is another kind of fermentation? Bacteria and yeast.
How does the process of fermentation help bread rise. The bubbles from carbon dioxide causes the dough to rise.
Wood is made of... Trees are made of.. Cell walls Cells
Reproduction is essential for.. but not essential for .. a species' survival survival of organism
3 benefits of being multicellular? larger size, longer life, specialization of cells
Give an example for growth. give an example for development puppy --> dog metamorphosis in frogs
Describe the levels of organization: Cell, Tissue, organ, organ system, organism (each one is basically a group of the previous working together to carry out function)
What are the structures that allow single celled organisms to move? • Flagellum (long, hairlike) • Cilia (shorter hairlike structures) • Pseudopodia (extension of cytoplasm, used to feed)
Write the 15 parts of a eukaryotic cell: o Cell Membrane o Cytoplasm o Ribosomes o Mitochondria o Nucleus o Nucleolus o Rough ER o Smooth ER o Golgi apparatus o Centrioles o Lysosomes o Vesicle o Chloroplast o Cell Wall o Vacuole
What is a gradient? Different areas of concentration
Organisms obtain nutrients in endocytosis by... Organisms obtain nutrients with chlorophyll by ... bringing particles in with vesicles using energy absorbing light energy from sun
What is protozoa? animal-like protists (type of eukaryote)
Describe the Rough ER covered in ribosomes + usually found near nucleus it transports the proteins throughout the cell.
Describe Smooth ER Smooth ER stores particles + breaks down harmful toxic materials
Created by: mhaq.16