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A/P Chap 3 and 4

Cell structure and functions

Smooth ER Synthesized lipids and steroids
Centrioles Functions in cell reproduction
Rough ER Transports synthesized protein
Cytoplasm Living material of the cell
Cell membrane functions Cell boundary, maintain integrity, protein molecules in plasma membrane perform various functions (identify, receptor, transport). Chemical attraction holds together from phospholipids
Mitochondria Powerhouses, ATP is synthesized here
Golgi apparatus Packages ER (endoplasmic reticulum) substances (protein). Synthesizes carbohydrates, combine protein and packages the product as globules of glycoprotein
Nucleus Plays role in growth and heredity, control center of the cell
Lysosomes Digestive system, breaks down defective cell parts and ingests particles
Ribosomes Protein factory, protein synthesis, found in cytoplasm as free floating or connected to ER. non membranous, made of two into interlocking pieces a large and small subunit
Nucleolus part of the nucleus, Ribosome formation
Carbohydrates Attach to the surface of cells, forming glycoprotein molecules that aid in cell type identification.
Proteins In the phospholipids bilayer, control what moves through the membrane. Many membrane proteins have openings that allow water-soluble molecules to pass through. Specific kinds of transport proteins allow only certain kinds of molecules to pass through.
Phospholipids Form the fluid framework for plasma membrane. Have a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region. Add to water, they self-assemble into aggregates so the phosphate heads contact water and the hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails are restricted to water-free areas.
Plasma Membrane It is a fluid mosaic composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, carbohydrates, and protein and is structured so that only selected substances can pass through this unique membrane.
Cytoskeleton Internal supporting framework, is made up of rigid, rodlike pieces that provide support and allow movement and mechanisms that can move the cell or its parts. Forms cell extensions (micro villa, cilia, flagella)
Cell fibers Support the ER, mitochondria, & ribosomes. Micro filament Intermediate filaments Microtubules
Centrosomes A region of the cytoplasm near the nucleus that coordinates the building and breaking of microtubules. Boundaries are indistinct because it lacks a membranous wall. Identified by locating centrioles. The centrioles are active during cell division.
Cell extensions Cytoskeleton forms projections that extend the plasma membrane outward to form tiny, fingerlike processes. They are present in only certain types of cells. The three types of processes are microvilli, cilia, and flagella.
Cilia Nonmembranous, hairlike cell extensions that serve to move substances over the cell surface
Flagella non-membranous, single cell extension that serves to propel cells with whip like action (only found in sperm)
Main cell structures Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus
Cytosol intracellular fluid, the watery fluid inside the cytoplasm.
Prime regulator of nucleus functions DNA
Nucleus spherical body in center of cell; enclosed by an envelope with pores
Structure and components of Nucleus Consists of nuclear envelope (composed of 2 membranes with the same molecular structure as plasma membrane) surrounding nucleoplasm; nuclear envelope has holes called nuclear pores .Contains DNA ,determines structure & function of cells & heredity
Cell Structures that contain DNA Nucleus
Composition of cell membrane Variety of membranes (plasma membrane, Membranous organelles—sacs and canals) Chemical attractions are the forces that hold membranes together Primary structure of a cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipid molecule
Cell membrane separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment
Phagocytosis ingestion and digestion of particles by a cell
Elements that control movement of materials through a cell membrane Membrane proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer. Some have carbohydrates attached, forming glycoproteins - identification markers Some are receptors that react to specific chemicals, permitting a process called signal transduction
Three types of cell connections Tight junction Gap junction Desmosomes
Tight junction Joined by “collars” of tightly fused material Molecules cannot permeate the cracks Occur in the lining of the intestines and other parts of the body, where it is important to control what gets through a sheet of cells
Gap junctions membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other; have two effects: Form gaps or “tunnels” that join the cytoplasm of two cells Fuse two plasma membranes into a single structure Occur in heart muscle cells.
Desmosomes Fibers on the outer surface interlock with each other; anchored internally by intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton Spot: connecting adjacent membranes, like “spot welds” at various points Belt: encircle the entire cell like a collar
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane, which limits the diffusion of at least some of the solute particles
Diffusion passive process, molecules spread or move down a concentration gradient. As molecules diffuse, a state of equilibrium will occur
Largest human cell Ovum
Membranous organelles plasma membrane endoplasmic reticulum(ER) golgi apparatus vesicles lysosomes proteasomes peroxisomes mitochondria nucleus
Non-membranous organelles ribosomes proteasomes cytoskeleton centrosome microvilli cilia and flagella nucleolus
Hydrophobic arrangement of cell membrane water fearing, tail that is lipid soluble most are, therefore water or water-soluble molecules do not pass through easily
Hydrophilic arrangement of cell membrane water loving, head that is water soluble
Major substances that can pass through the cell membrane Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
Substances that can not pass through the cell membrane Electrically charged substances can not/must pass through pores- sodium chloride Water or water-soluble molecules Substances larger than the pores Bacteria cancer cell blood donations with out similar cell markers
Carrier- mediated transport Passive transport Carriers attract and bind to solute, change shape, and release the solute out the other side of the carrier Reversible, depending on the direction of the concentration gradient
Enzyme reactions catalyze a chemical reaction in both directions Chemical catalysis that reduce the activation energy needed for reaction Regulate cell metabolism Oxidation- Reduction Hydrolyzing Phosphorylating Carboxylases/ Decarboxylases Mutases/ Isomerases H
Mature human cells M phase: reproduce by first distributing two identical set of DNA (mitosis) Cytokinesis: two daughter cells
Immature human cells G1 and G2: grow to maturity by synthesizing new molecules and organelles S phase: replication of an extra set of DNA in anticipation of reproductio
Cellular respiration Pathway in which glucose is broken down to yield its stored energy. Example of cell catabolism Three pathways: Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Electron transport system (ETS)
Phases of Mitosis Interpahse Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Mitosis process of organizing and disturbing nuclear DNA during cell division
Meiosis specialized cell division of sex cells. reduction of chromosomes from diploid to the haploid number take place
Active transport requires the expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell Transport by pumps Transport by vesicles Endocytosis Exocytosis
Transport by pumps Pumps are membrane transporters that move a substance against its concentration gradient—the opposite of diffusion Examples: calcium pumps and sodium-potassium pumps
Transport by vesicles allows substances to enter or leave the interior of a cell without actually moving through its plasma membrane
Endocytosis the plasma membrane “traps” some extracellular material and brings it into the cell in a vesicle Two basic types Phagocytosis—“condition of cell-eating” Pinocytosis—“condition of cell-drinking”
Exocytosis large molecules (proteins) can leave the cell even though they are too large to move out through the plasma membrane enclosed in vesicles then pulled by the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane way for new material to be added to the plasma membrane
Passive transport Do not require any energy expenditure of the cell membrane, move substance down their concentration gradient Simple diffusion Osmosis Facilitated diffusion channel-mediated carrier-mediated
Hypotonic solution Low pressure, expand or bloat solution that has a lower solute concentration than the cell, the cells draw water attempting to equalize- trying to create isotonic/ homeostatic environment (causes to swell and rupture)
Hypertonic solution High pressure, shrivel or compress solution contains a level of salt that is higher than o.9% . they draw water from surrounding cells in an attempt to create an isotonic/ homeostatic environment (causes cells to shrink)
Transcription process in which DNA molecule is used as a template to form mRNA Messenger RNA receives the genetic information from the DNA during the first stage of protein synthesis mRNA forms along a segment of one strand of DNA
Translation mRNA code delivered to ribosome, then is used by ribosomes in the synthesis of a protein Second stage of the transfer of info from DNA Can be inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi)—protecting the cell against viral infection
Catabolism energy source, breaks large molecules into smaller ones; releasing energy Example- Cellular respiration
Anabolism building block for making complex chemical compounds; consumes energy Protein Synthesis is a central anabolic pathway in cells Example: DNA (call shots) Example: RNA ( carries on forward)
Created by: juaire30