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Quarter 1 Week 5

Vocabulary from Quarter 1 Week 5

Cell The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning. It includes a nucleus, cytoplasm, and various organelles - surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
Carbohydrates Includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums. It serves as a major energy source in the diet of animals. They are produced by plants.
Proteins A component of all living cells that is necessary for the proper functioning of an organism. They are essential in the diet of animals for the growth and repair of tissue and can be obtained from foods such as meat, fish, eggs, milk, and legumes.
Lipids Includes fats and edible oils (e.g., butter, olive oil, corn oil), which are primarily triglycerides. They are important in cell structure and metabolism.
Nucleic Acids A group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric acid. In the form of DNA and RNA, they control cellular function and heredity.
DNA Genetic information in the cell, capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA. Consists of 2 chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix. Chains include pairs of bases (adenine/thymine and cytosine/guanine). Determines hereditary characteristics
RNA Part of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long single-stranded chain units with bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Molecules are involved in protein synthesis and in the transmission of genetic information.
Prokaryote Part of the kingdom Monera, these include bacteria and cyanobacteria. There is no membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and DNA is not organized into chromosomes.
Eukaryote Any organism composed of one or more cell. They contain a clearly defined nucleus enclosed by a membrane, along with organelles. Includes all organisms except bacteria and archaea.
Bacteria Single-celled microscopic organisms that lack nuclei and other organized cell structures.
Virus A submicroscopic parasite of plants, animals, and bacteria that often cause disease. Consists of a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat. Unable to replicate without a host cell, they are typically not considered living organisms.
Nuclear Membrane The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a cell
Flagella A long, threadlike appendage or whiplike extension of certain cells or one-celled organisms. It allows the cell to move independently.
Locomotion Movement
Chloroplasts A part of a plant containing chlorophyll and other pigments. In plants, they are the part that carries out photosynthesis
Homeostasis A self-regulating process by which a biological or mechanical system maintains stability while adjusting to changing conditions. This might include shivering while cold, sweating when hot, or osmosis to maintain a certain amount of liquid in a cell.
Diffusion A flow of matter from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration. This would be a part of osmosis.
Osmosis The movement of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.
Endocytosis As a cell ingests something else, the plasma membrane folds inward to bring the substance into the cell.
Exocytosis The process of cellular secretion/excretion in which substances are removed from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane
Vesicle A closed structure, found only in eukaryotic cells, that is completely surrounded by a unit membrane. Unlike a vacuole, it contains material that is not a liquid.
Contractile Vacuole A membrane-bound organelle that pumps fluid in a cyclical manner from within the cell to the outside by alternately filling and then contracting to release its contents at various points on the surface of the cell. It is used in osmosis.
Mitosis Part cell division where the nucleus divides. It consists of 4 stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. It results in 2 new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes.
Stem Cells A cell (in a living thing) that hasn’t been given a “job” yet. Eventually it makes up specialized tissues and organs. There are 2 types of stem cells: embryonic and adult. There is controversy surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells for research.
Pasteurization A process to heat-treat something for partial sterilization. It is often used to make a food product, especially milk, safer to drink or eat and improve its keeping qualities by heating it in order to destroy harmful bacteria
Heredity the transfer of genetically controlled characteristics such as hair color or flower color from one generation to the next in living organisms
Ribosomes A cluster of proteins and RNA, occurring in great numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. It takes part in the manufacture of proteins.
Chromosomes a rod-shaped structure, usually found in pairs in a cell nucleus, that carries the genes that determine sex and the characteristics an organism inherits from its parents. A human body cell usually contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs.
Gene the basic unit of heredity which is capable of transmitting characteristics from one generation to the next. It consists of a specific sequence of DNA or RNA that occupies a fixed position on a chromosome
Nucleotides A structural unit of nucleic acidsand a component of RNA and DNA.
Mutation a random change in a gene or chromosome resulting in a new trait or characteristic that can be inherited. Mutation can be a source of beneficial genetic variation, or it can be neutral or harmful in effect.
Allele an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. These DNA codings determine distinct traits that can be passed on from parents to offspring.
Dominant Allele One allele (of a pair)that expresses what it codes for (such as eye color) no matter what the partner allele is. Example: if B=Brown, and b=blue, the pairs of BB and Bb will both result in brown eyes one blue allele.
Recessive Allele an allele that will only express what it codes for if there is a recessive pair. For example, in eyes B=Brown, and b=blue , the only combination where you can get blue eyes is bb.
Homozygous A pair of alleles that is made up of two of the same trait (i.e. BB or bb)
Heterozygous A pair of alleles that is made up of both dominant and recessive traits (i.e. Bb)
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism, as opposed to its physical characteristics phenotype. Identified as BB, Bb, or bb.
Phenotype The visible characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction between its genetic makeup and the environment. For example, blue eyes, long legs, freckles, or purple flowers.
Punnett Square A square box with 4 compartments:used in genetics to calculate the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes.
Gamete A specialized male or female cell with 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes. It unites with a cell of the opposite sex in the process of sexual reproduction. Two examples are Ova and spermatozoa. They unite to produce a cell zygote.
Law of segregation : one of Mendel's Laws stating that during meiosis, the alleles of a gene pair segregate, each going to a separate gamete
Sex-linked chromosome Genetic traits transmitted by genes on sex chromosome: relating to a gene located on a sex chromosome, typically the X chromosome.
Pedigree The line of ancestors of an individual animal, person or plant, similar to a family tree. It can be used to identify who has a certain trait in a family (a disease or other trait).
Jumping Gene A segment of DNA that is capable of independently replicating itself and inserting the copy into a new position within the same or another chromosome
Genetic engineering The alteration and recombination of genetic material by technological means. aka: Genetic Modification
Gene therapy  the treatment of a genetic disease through the insertion of normal or genetically altered genes into cells in order to replace or make up for the nonfunctional or missing genes
Selective Breeding is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is sometimes done by a professional breeder.
Cloning Making a genetically identical organism: a plant, animal, or other organism that is genetically identical to its parent, having developed by vegetative reproduction from a bulb, cutting, or other part, or, in experimental conditions, from a single cell
Created by: mathewsecot