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PSY Exam 1

ch 1-4, 16

psychology scientific study of mind and behavior
mind private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories and feelings
behavior observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
nativism philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn (Plato)
dualism how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior (Descartes)
philosophical empiricism philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience (Aristotle
phrenology now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness are localized in specific regions of the brain (Gall)
physiology study of biological processes, especially in the human body
stimulus sensory input from the environment
reaction time amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
consciousness person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
structuralism analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind (Tichener/ Wundt)
introspection subjective observation of one's own experience
functionalism study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
natural selection Charles Darwin's theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations
hysteria a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
unconscious the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
psychoanalytic theory sigmund Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors
psychoanalysis therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders
humanistic psychology an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings (Rogers & Maslow)
behaviorism approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
response an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus
reinforcement consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again
illusions errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
Gestalt psychology a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
cognitive psychology scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory and reasoning
behavioral neuroscience approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
cognitive neuroscience field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
evolutionary psychology psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
social psychology a subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior
cultural psychology study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
______ holds that culture makes little difference for most psychological phenomena, whereas _____________ holds that psychological phenomena vary a lot from culture to culture. absolutism; relativism
Psychology is best defined as: the scientific study of mind and behavior. observable actions of humans and non-human animals. the electrical and chemical activity of our brains.the welfare and reproduction of organisms. None of the above.
What is the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn? nativism
Which of the following did NOT contribute to the rise of cognitive psychology? radar operators computer technology discovery of errors in perception Piagests study of children Chomsky's observations of children producing novel sentences
Which early scientist demonstrated that mental processes do not occur instantaneously? Helmholtz
Rats learn to associate nausea with the smell of food more easily than they learn to associate nausea with a sound or a light. Why? A rat's ancestors' learning experiences determine a rat's ability to learn new associations.
Descartes suggested that the mind and the body interact through the: pineal gland
Clinical psychologists differ from psychiatrists in that clinical psychologists: do not assess or treat people with psychological problems. never do research. do not have a degree beyond a bachelor's degree. only work in university settings. do not have MDs (medical degrees) and do not prescribe medication.
Which of the following is NOT true of psychoanalytic theory? continues to be dominant today
Darwin's theory of natural selection informed which approach to psychology? functionalism
Flourens and Broca conducted research that demonstrated a connection between mind and the brain
What was the subject of the famous experiment conducted by Helmholtz reaction time
Wundt is creditied with founding of psychology as a scientific discipline
Wundt and students sought to analyze the basic elements that constitute the mind, an approach called structuralism
William James and _________ helped establish functionalism as a major school of psychological thought in North America G. Stanley Hall
the functional approach to psychology was inspired by Darwin's Natural Selection
To understand human behavior, French physicians Jean-Martin Charcot and Pierre Janet studied people with psychological disorders
Building on the work of charcot and Janet, Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalytic theory
Behaviorism involves the study of observable actions and responses
The experiments of Ivan Pavlov and Watson centered on stimulus and response
Who developed the concept of reinforcement B.F.Skinner
The study of mental processes such as perception and memory cognitive psychology
use of scanning techniques to observe the brain in action and to see which parts are involved in which operations helped the development of cognitive neuroscience
central to evolutionary psychology is the ___ function that minds and brains serve adaptive
social psychology most differs from other psychological approaches in its emphasis on human interaction
common sense - on human behavior influenced by upbringing, education, religion, ideology...
empiricism belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
scientific method set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence (al-Haytham)
theory hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
hypothesis falsifiable prediction made by a theory
empirical method set of rules and techniques for observation
operational definition description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
measure device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers
electromyograph (EMG) device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin
validity extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related
reliability tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing; necessary but not sufficient for validity
power the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition
demand characteristics those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should
naturalisitic observation a technique for gathering scientific info by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
double-blind when both observer and observee don't know true purpose of experiment
frequency distribution graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made
normal distribution mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle
mode value of the most frequently observed measurement
mean average value of all the measurements
median value that is "in the middle" i.e. greater than or equal to half the measurements and less than or equal to half the measurements
range value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest measurement
standard deviation statistic that describes the averge difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution
variable property whose value can vary across individuals or over time
correlation two variables are said to "be correlated" when variations in the value of one variabl are sychronized with variations in te value of the other
correlation coefficient measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signified by the letter r
natural correlation correlation observed in the world around us
third-variable correlation fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable
matched samples technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third varialbe
matched pairs technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable
third-variable problem fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the naturally occurring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation
experiment technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
manipulation creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine its causal powers
independent variable variable that is manipulated in an experiment
experimental group group of people who are treated in a particular way, as compared to the control group, in an experiment
control group group of people who are not treated in the particular way that the experimental group is treated in an experiment
dependent variable the variable that is measured in a study
self-selection problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group
random assignment procedure that used a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group
internal validity characteristic of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables
external validity property of an experiment in which the varialbes have been operationally defined in a normal, typical or realistic way
population complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
sample partial collection of people drawn from a population
case method method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual
random sampling technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
informed consent written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all risks that participation may entail
debriefing verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study
when a measure tends to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing it is said to have: reliability
which research method establishes a causal relationship between two variables an experiment
a ______ occurs when a variable (z) causually influences the relationship between two other varialbles (a and b) third-variable correlation
what is an operational definition description of property in concrete, measurable terms
the set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence: the scientific methodddddd
reasons people are hard to study complez, variable, reactive
belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation is empiricism
aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should are called demand characteristics
characteristic of an experiment that allows conclusions about causal relationships to be drawn is called internal validity
experiment that operationally defines variables in a realistic way is said to be externally valid
Key to true experiment random assignment!!!!
why wouldn't we random assign? impossible, implausable, unethical
face validity does test appear to measure what is purports to measure
criterion validity does measurement predict some criterion of interest
construct validity are we really measuring the theoretical construct we think we are (i.e. know answering and their correlated meanings)
neurons cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks
cell body part of a neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive
dendrite part of a neuron that receives info from other neurons and relays it to the cell body
axon part of a neuron that transmits info to other neurons, muscles, or glands
myelin sheath an insulating layer of fatter material
glial cells support cells found in the nervous system
synapse junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another
sensory neurons neurons that receive info from the external world and convey this info to the brain via the spinal cord
motor neurons neruons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement
interneurons neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons
resting potential difference in electric charge between inside and outside of a neron's cell membrane
action potential electric signal that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse
refractory period time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
How can demand characteristics be avoided? by observing people in their natural environments
Which of the following is an operational definition of depression? score on a depression symptom scale
What are the three basic principles described in the Belmont Report? respect for persons, beneficence, and justice
When psychologists report the results of their research, they are required to do all of the following except... only report results that are statistically significant
A graduate student is examining the effects of 2 antipsychotics (Zyprexa, and Risperdol) on the weight gain of people with schizophrenia. In this experiment… independent- antipsychotic dependent- weight gain
All of the following are part of the psychologist's code of ethics risk-benefit analysis, protection from harm, informed consent, freedom from coercion
experiment debriefing entails researcher explaining nature and purpose of study
A(n) ________ is a testable prediction that is based on a(n) __________. hypothesis, theory
terminal buttons knoblike structures that branch out from an axon
neurontransmitters chemicals that transmit info across the synapse to a receiving neruon's dendrites
receptors parts of the cell membrane that receive the nerotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electric signal
acetylcholine a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control
dopamine neurotransmitter regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal
glutamate major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in info transmission throughout the brain
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
norepinephrine neurontransmitter that influences mood and arousal
serotonin neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating and aggressive behavior
endorphins chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain
agonists drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
antagonists drugs that block the function of a neurotranmitter
nervous system interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical info throughout the body
CNS part of nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord
PNS part of nervous system that connects the CNS to the body's organs and muscles
somatic nervous system set of nerves that conveys info into and out of the CNS
autonomic nervous system (ANS) set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands
sympathetic nervous system set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations
parasympathetic nervous system set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state
spinal reflexes simple pathways in teh nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions
hindbrain area of the brain that coordinates info coming into and out of the spinal cord
medulla an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
reticular formation a brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal
cerebellum a large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills
pons brain strucutre that relays info from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
tectum part of the midbrain that orients an organism in the environment
tegmentum part of the midbrain that is involved in movement and arousal
cerebral cortex outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres
subcortical structures areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain
limbic system group of forebrain structures including the ypothalamus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning and memory
thalamus subcortical structure that relays and filters info from the senses and transmits the info to the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus subcorical structure that regulates body temp, hunger, thirst and sexual behavior
pituitary gland "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functons of many other glands in the body
hippocampus structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex
amygdala part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories
basal ganglia set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements
corpus callosum thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of info across the hemispheres
occipital lobe region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual info
parital lobe region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing info about touch
temporal lobe region of the cerebral cotex responsible for hearing and language
frontal lobe region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory and judgement
association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to info registered in the cortex
gene unit of hereditary transmission
chromosomes strand of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix configuration
heritability measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors
electroencephalograph (EEG) device used to record electrical activity in the brain
what part of hindbrain coordinates fine motor skills cerebellum
part of brain involved in movement and arousal midbrain
the ___ regulates body temp, hunger, thirst and sexual behavior hypothalamus
what explains benefits of cardiovascular exercise on aspects of brain function and cognitive performance neuron plasticity
during course of embryonic brain growth the ___ undergoes the greatest development cerebral cortex
first true central nervous system appeared in flatworms!
genes set the ___ in populations within a given environment range of variation
identifying brain areas that are involved in specific types of motor, cognitive, or emotional processing is best achieved through __ brain imaging
The set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system is called the… somatic nervous system
Individuals with autism struggle with social interactions and communication skills. Recent evidence suggests that these difficulties can be attributed to a deficiency in… mirror neurons
genetics plays a major role in personality traits, psychological disorders, particular behaviors
metal rod through frontol lobe? Phineas Gage, became irritable and irresponsible compared to quiet, man he was before accident. therefore conclusion that frontol lobe is involved with emotion regulation and decision making
runner's high comes from endorphins
part of brain the performs advanced tasks like planning and judging forebrain
the __ nervous system prepares body for action while the __ nercous system helps body return to normal state sympathetic; parasympathetic
stressors specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being
stress the physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors
health psychology subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physcial illness and the maintenance of health
chronic stressor a source of stress that occurs continuously or repeatedly
fight-or-flight response emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) a three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered 1. alarm phase- body responds to threat 2. resistance phase- body tries to cope 3. exhaustion phase- body's resistance collapses
immune system complex response system that protects the body from bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances
lymphocytes white blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection
type A behavior pattern the tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency and competitive strivings
post-traumatic stress disorder disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind
burnout state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation
repressive coping avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint
rational coping facing a stressor and working to overcome it
reframing finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat
stress inoculation training (SIT) therapy that helps people to cope with stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about the situation
relaxation therapy technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body
relaxation response condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure
biofeedback use of an external monitoring device to obtain info about a bodily function and possible gain control over that function
social support aid gained through interacting with others
psychosomatic illness an interaction between mind and body that can produce illness
somatoform disorders set of psychological disorders in which the person displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition
hypochondriasis a psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life=threatening illness
somatization disorder psychological disorder involving combinations of multiple physical complaints with no medical explanation
conversion disorder disorder characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary-but that the person experiences as involuntary
sick role socially recognized set of rights and obligations linked with illness
self-regulation exercise of volutary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards
how to measure sympathetic NS activity galvanic skin response (measuring electrical activity/sweat), heart rate & blood pressure
HPA axis? hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal
corisol increases blood sugar level& suppresses immune system
catecholamines epinephrine& norepinephrine, increases activity in sympathetic and decreases parasympathetic
what somatoform disorder is characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary conversion diorder
faking an illness is a violation of the sick role
what brain structure might be an indicator to a susceptability to PTSD? hippocampus
biofeedback moderately sucessful in treating brain-wave abnormalties, no control over stress-induced health problems, useful alternative to other relaxational techniques, monitors bodily functions people are not usually aware of
unique presence of ___ in females may explain why females respond to stress by "tending-and-befriending" others oxytocin
in fMRI studies the __ and __ show greater activation in high-pain-sensitive individuals than in low-pain-sensitive individuals anterior cingulate cortex, primary somatosensory areas
a ___ is a socially recognized set of risks and obligations linked to illness sick role
synesthesia perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense
sensation simple stiumlation of a sense organ
perception organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
transduction takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system
psychophysics methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus
absolute threshold minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus
just noticeable difference (JND) minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected
weber's law just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
signal detection theory observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion
sensory adaptation sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions
visual activity ability to see fine detail
retina light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball
accommodation process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
cones photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail
rods photoreceptors that become active under low-light conditions for night vision
fovea area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all
blind spot location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina because the corresponding area of the retina contains netiher rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light
receptive field the region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron
trichromatic color representation pattern of responding across the three types of cones that provides a unique code for each color
color-opponent system pairs of visual neurons that work in opposition
area V1 part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex
visual-form agnosia inability to recognize objects by sight
binding problem how features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or miscombined features
illusory conjunction perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined
feature integration theory idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus but is required to bind those individual features together
perceptual constancy perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent
template mental representation that cna be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image
monocular depth cues aspects of a scene that yield info about depth when viewed with only one eye
binocular disparity difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides info about depth
apparent motion perception of movement as a result of alternating sinals appearing in rapid succession in different locations
change blindness when people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene
inattentional blindness failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention
rule of __ states that edges and contours with similar orientation are grouped together perceptually continuity
place code the cochlea encoding different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane
why is sense of tast evolutionary advantage chemical sense of taste allows us to identify foods that are bad for us and therefore avoid them
all senses rely on... TRANSDUCTION! and the brain...
process of accommodation allows us to focus on objects at different distances
binocular disparity provides info on depth
primary auditory cortex located in... temporal lobe
Created by: 566422636