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NWHSU Histo 1 exam 1

QuestionAnswer
What is the term for a storage of charge across a membrane capacitance
what is the difference of charge on the inside of a membrane -70mv
what are 5 characteristics of a bilipid layer 1.thin membrane 2.semipermeability 3.allows protein to float around (fluid mosaic) 4.membrane proteins control what comes in, and goes out or the cell 5. gycocalyx
what is the function of the glycocalyx adhesion and communication
give 2 examples of organelles with double unit membranes nucleus, mitochondria
give 3 examples of organelles with a single unit membrane rER, sER, and lysosomes
what is caused by a decrease in myelenation of axons Multiple sclerosis
why does the cell membrane need to be thin to let necessary chemicals in/out of the cell
what is the purpose of cell wall thickening protection
Compare and contrast: Mitochondrion vs. nucleus 1. both have double unit membrane 2.Mitochondria makes ATP, Nucleus is the control center of the cell
compare and contrast: centrioles vs. microtubules 1.centrioles are organelles and microtubules are modification of the membrane 2. both are involved in forming mitotic spindles 3.both are non-membrane bound 4. centrioles -> basal bodies to anchor microtubules
compare and contrast : microvilli vs cilia 1. both are extensions of the membrane 2.cilia are long and microvilli are short 3.cilia are movement, microvilli are absorption 4. cilia have 9 doublets and 2 singlets
compare and contrast: microtubules vs microfilaments 1.both are non-membrane bound 2.microtubules are hollow, microfilaments are solid 3.microtubules are the core of cilia, microfilaments are core of microvilli 4.microtubules are bigger than microfilaments
compare and contrast: ribosomes vs. nucleolus ribosomes (rER) translate proteins for export, nucleolus synthesizes ribosomes 2.both are non-membrane bound 3.ribosomes come from nucleolus
compare and contrast centrioles vs cilia 1.centrioles are organelles, cilia are not 2. centrioles have 9 triplets, cilia have 9 doublets plus 2 3. both have microtubules 4. cilia=movement. centrioles= organize cell division
compare and contrast: golgi vs. rER 1. golgi has double membrane, rER has a single 2.golgi is responsible for packaging and sorting (glycosylation), rER transports protein components to golgi. 3.rER is a site of translation
2 types of epithelium that act as a primary line of defense 1.stratified 2.keratinized epithelium
epithelium associated with absorption 1.simple epithelia 2.microvilli
epithelium associated with secretion glandular epithelium
epithelium associated with diffusion of gases simple squamous epithelium
epithelium lining small intestine simple columnar with microvilli and goblet cells
epithelium associated with respiratory tissue pseudostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells
epithelium lining A/V and capillaries, as well as sweat glands stratified cuboidal epithelium
epithelium making up the epidermis stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium
epithelium of the esophagus stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium
compare and contrast : terminal Bar vs Terminal Web 1. tb is part of membrane, tw is part of cytoplasm 2.tw anchors filaments that affect mifrovilli (actin and myosin) tb is a junction between adjacent absorptive cells 3.cilia cant have tw, ciliated cells can have TB 4.Both involve secretion and absorpt
features of Pseudostratified epithelia 1.NO TW 2.Basal bodies anchor cilia 3.lymphocytes present (respiratory tract) 4.cila and goblet cell 5.all cells contact BM, not all contact free surface
gap junctions vs. tight junctions 1. tight junctions seal adjacent epithelial cells. 2. gap junction are intercellular channels, permit free passage between the cells
glands that have ducts to carry secretions to specific locations exocrine
2 examples of exocrine glands 1. salivary glands 2. pancreas
features of an exocrine gland 1. directly connected to apical part of epithelium 2. can be branched/nonbranched
glands of "internal secretion" that secrete directly to the bloodx Endocrine
2 examples of endocrine glands pituitary gland and thyroid
only dissolved materials are secreted merocrine gland
pieces/chunks of cells get pinched off in the secretion apocrine glands
entire cells are secreted Holocrine glands
T or F epithelia typically possess cells tightly joined to one another T
T or F epithelia typically has abundant intercellular space F
T or F epithelia typically are able to reproduce themselves T
T or F epithelia typically provides support for other tissues or organs T
T or F epithelia typically can be involved in absorption of material T
T or F epithelium is a tissue that participates in the exchange of all materials that enter or leave the body T
T or F epithelium is a tissue that lines cavities as well as covers external surfaces T
T or F epithelium is a tissue thatmay form very small tubes which carry blood called capillaries T
T or F epithelium is a tissue that may exhibit polarity of organelles T
T or F epithelium is a tissue that is vascularized F
T or F transitional epithelium is pseudostratified F
T or F transitional epithelium is ciliated F
T or F transitional epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium F
T or F transitional epithelium is stratified with some surface cells that are larger, multinucleated, and more rounded tthan those of the underlying layer T
T or F transitional epithelium is found in the gallbladder F
T or F basement membrane is found under the basal later of all epithelia T
T or F basement membrane separates epithelia from underlying CT T
T or F basement membrane is believed to be secreted in part by epithelial cells T
T or F basement membrane contains non-fibrous collagen T
T or F basement membrane contains Positive glycoproteins T
T or F exocrine glands may be classified as having either branched or unbranched duct system T
T or F exocrine glands secrete into the blood vascular system F
T or F exocrine glands secrete via ducts into the external environment T
T or F exocrine glands are derived from epithelium T
T or F exocrine glands may possess either serous or mucous cell types T
Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, both or neither have membrane bound organelles Both
Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, both or neither contain DNA components mitochondria
Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, both or neither involved in translation of mRNA mitochondria
Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, both or neither, involved in the transport of protein components in the cell endoplasmic reticulum
Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, both or neither, contain enzymes for the production of ATP Mitochondria
Inner compartment of mitochondria, outer compartment of mitochondria, cytoplasm or none: contain the matrix of the mitochondria inner compartment
Inner compartment of mitochondria, outer compartment of mitochondria, cytoplasm or none: F1 particles face into this inner compartment
Inner compartment of mitochondria, outer compartment of mitochondria, cytoplasm or none: between inner and outer membranes of the mitochondria outer compartment
Inner compartment of mitochondria, outer compartment of mitochondria, cytoplasm or none: contain ribosomes inner compartment or cytoplasm
Inner compartment of mitochondria, outer compartment of mitochondria, cytoplasm or none: contain enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation inner compartment
cellular absorption endocytosis
cellular excretion/secretion exocytosis
cellular absorption of particulates phagocytosis
cellular absorption of soluble ions w/h20 pinocytosis
the process in which cells use energy to make a product by digestion secretion
the process in which cells use energy to filter and condense wast products excretion
types of cells that can change AP muscle cells and neurons
electrical difference between the inside and outside of the membrane Resting potential
two types of gated ion channels voltage, chemical
the ability to respond to the environment irritability
ability to modify the resting membrane potential conductivity
ability to change cellular shape contractility
functions involving the cell membrane absorption, secretion, excretion
growth by adding to the outside of tissue appositional
growth from within a tissue interstitial growth
specialized cell is becoming less special metaplasia
cellular growth increasing in size hypertrophy
cellular growth increasing in number hyperplasia
glycolysis occurs in the _______ cytoplasm
Krebs cycle occurs in the _______ mitochondria
electron transport chain occurs in the ______ cristae
all cells must do what 2 funtions growth and respiration
ability to use raw materials to make energy Respiration
in phospholipids, 1 side chain must me______ saturated
a protein that is partially through the membrame Associated
a protein that is entirely through the membrane integral
nuclear pores let out _____ but not___ mRNA, DNA
nucleous type that has more protein synthesis leptochromatic
nucleous type that has less protein synthesis pachycromatic
leptochromatic nuclei have what 4 characteristics euchromatin nucleolus rER golgi
pachychromatic nuclei have what characteristics heterochromatin few organelles
bits of rRNA come together to make what enzyme system ribosome
responsible for translation of the mRNA ribosomes
transcription takes place in the ______ nucleous
translation takes place in the ______ cytoplasm
layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial 1. stratum basale 2. stratum spinosum 3. stratum granulosum 4. stratum lucidum 5. stratum corneum
Layers of skin 1.epidermis 2.dermis 3.subcutaneous
Specialized squasmous cells that are part of the stratum basale Keratinocytes
Specialized cells of the stratum basale, neural crest derivatives Melanocytes
What type of tissue makes up the epidermis Stratified squamous keratinizing
Type of tissue composing the dermis Dense irregular CT
Type of tissue composing the subcutaneous layer Adipose
Cells of the stratum basale that are sensory receptors Merkel disc
Cells of the stratum spinosum, react to environmental irritation Langerhons cells
How many layers are in the stratum basale 1
How many layers are in the stratum granulosum 3-5
Layer in which cells have released their keratin and have died and are stacking uo Stratum corneum
Make Tight junctions between cells Desmosomes
6 layers of epidermis 1. Stratum basale 2. Stratum spinosum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum lucidum 5. Stratum corneum 6. Stratum disjunction
Epithelium is named by what Outer most layer of cells
The term for a cell that is found only one place Pathognomonic
Function of umbrella cells Change shape with pressure
3 types of permanent junctions Zonule Fascia Macula
Junction spanning entire cell like a belt -2 levels of tightness Zonula
A characteristic label of a junction that is zipper like, very tight, impermeable Occludens
A characteristic label of a junction that tightens as it is pulled apart Adherens
3 junctions making up terminal bar ZO ZA MA
A junction that is "strip" like Fascia
Spot junction Macula (desmosomes)
Non-pemanent, communicating junctions Gap junction
Produce of endocrine gland Hormone
Merocrine glands have a function that resemble what cellular function Exocytosis
Top of cell membrane is part of the secretion from what type of gland Apocrine gland
Type of secretion where whole cell is the secretion Holocrine
Non-branched exocrine gland Simple
Branched exocrine gland Compound
What type of glsnds are associated with leptochromatic nucleus Serous
What type of glands are associated with pachychromatic nucleus Mucous
Mixed glands are known as Serous demilunes
Created by: Aaron Esquibel Aaron Esquibel on 2012-02-06



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