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Poli Test 1

Political science State and government Test 1

Redistributive policies Policies that provide extensive public services for people on the low end of the income scale and finance those services with revenues collected from people at the middle and upper ends of the income scale.
Redistributive policies continued** These policies try, to some degree, to equalize the distribution of wealth.
Constitutional convention A convention that drafts a new constitution and proposes it to voters for ratification.
Fundamental law The law of a constitution, with particular emphasis on the structure of government, what officials it will have, and how they will be chosen. Fundamental law also usually includes an outline of the most important rights that people have.
Judicial review The power of courts to evaluate the constitutionality of acts of other members of government, including the governor, state legislators, local officials, state administrators, and lower courts.
Statutory law a law enacted by a legislature (in contrast to constitutional law)
Block grant A grant that can be used for almost anything in a broad functional area, such as education or transportation. A block grant may be created by consolidating several categorical grants into a single grant
Categorical grant A grant-in-aid given for a specific purpose, such as building airports or improving foreign language instruction in high schools. Also called categorical aid.
Commerce Clause The provision in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution that grants Congress the authority to regulate interstate and international commerce.
Compact theory The theory of John C. Calhoun that the U.S. Constitution was a compact between the state governments rather than a charter from the people. This theory could be used to justify the states defying the national government.
Delegated powers same as enumerated powers.
Enumerated Powers The powers specifically granted to Congress and/or the national government more generally by the Constitution. Also called delegated powers.
Equal Protection Clause The provision of the Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment that forbids any state to deny any person in its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Equal Protection Clause continued** Sometimes used to stop states from discriminating against nonresidents, although a number of exceptions have been allowed.
Federalism A formal or informal allocation of authority between a national government and one or more levels of subnational governments. Responsibilities may be clearly divided or may be shared among levels of government.
Grant-in-aid a federal payment to a state or local government, or a state payment to a local government to carry out an activity or to run a program.
National Supremacy Clause The provision in Article VI of the Constitution that makes the Constitution and all legislation passed under its authority the supreme law of the land.
Reserved powers The powers reserved to the states or to the people of the United States by the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution.
Created by: 1031978224