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ch 5 - 6 ap terms

muscle and bones test

function of the skeletal muscles movement of bones, maintain posture, support, guard enterances/ exits, body temp
skeletal muscle only type that is voluntary
myofibril fibers inside a muscle cell
epimysium outermost tissue of muscle cell
perimysium 2nd layer of muscle cell; surrounds bundles of cells
endomysium surrounds muscle fiber
components of a muscle cell sarcoplasm, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum
sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions and releases them when needed
sarcolemma cell membrane of a muscle cell
myosin thick protein filaments that form the dark lines of a fibril
actin thin protein filament; forms the light lines of the fibril (i bands)
sacromere contractile unit of the muscle
z disc the zigzags on a fibril, made of actin; make the boundries
action potential message from neuron; produced by ach; electrical upsetting travelling completely around the muscle cell
neuromuscular junction where the axon terminal meets the muscle cell
ach (acetycholine) tells muscles to contract; released by neuron with use of Ca+2 and goes to muscle cell
creatine phosphate gives extra energy when atp is low; gives its phosphate to a ADP to make it ATP and usable
aerobic respiration slow but most efficient; Glucose + O2 =ATP; converts food to energy
anaerobic respiration when you work hard enough so O2 is not getting to tissue; very fast but no efficient. no O2 needed.
flexion decreases the angle of the joint; brings two bones closer together
extension increases the angle of the joint; two bones farther from eachother
hyperextention bending beyond 180* angle
abduction take/ move away from body
adduction move closer to body
circumduction movement in a circular motion (ball and socket joints)
supination palms up
pronation palms down
organs of the skeletal system bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments
two subdivisions of the skeleton axial and appendicular
ligaments connect bone to bone
functions of bones support the body, protection, levers, store minerals, blood cell formation
classification of bones long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones
long bone compact bone, dense, longer than wide
short bone cube shaped, mostly spongy
flat bone flattened, thin, usually curved
irregular bone bones that don't fit in any other catergory
epiphyseal growing plate or line; determines growth; plate = cartilage and line = bone
diaphysis and epiphysis d = mostly compact, e = spongy
two types of marrow red and yellow
red marrow hematopheisis (production of blood)
yellow marrow where fat is stored; found in diaphysis
perferating canals move horizontally through bone
central canals move vertically through bones
osteons run the length of the bone
3 types of muscle cells osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts
osteocytes mature muscle cells
bone remodeling controlled building and breaking of bone; happens when calcium levels are to high or low
calcium involved in muscle contraction, sending nerve impulses, blood clotting
collagen protein that gives bone a flexible quality
Created by: redhead19