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Chemical Reactions The making or breaking of bonds between atoms.
Synthesis reactions anabolism
Endergonic IN. Requires energy. Usually releases water during synthesis
dehydration reactions Releases water during synthesis.
Decomposition reactions catabolism. Releases energy
Exergonic OUT. Releases energy. Split by water into several products
hydrolysis reaction water becomes part of the product.
Solvent more abundant
Solvent less abundant
Solute + Solvent Solution
cohesion water molecules sticking together (drop)
adhesion water molecules sticking to another surface (glass)
high specific heat the ability to absorb and release large quantities of heat without significant changes in temperature.(lake effect example)
high heat of vaporization he ability to absorb large quantities of heat BEFORE vaporizing (skin example)
water is a lubricant
water has high surface tension
water uniquely expands or contracts upon freezing? expands
list 6 properties of water 1. excellent solvent & suspending medium 2. participates in chemical reactions 3. cohesion & adhesion 4. high specific heat 5. high heat of vaporization 6. lubricant 7. high surface tension 8. expands upon freezing (unique).
Electrolyte substance that IONIZES (dissociates) when put in HzO and will conduct an electric current.
acid electrolyte that produces H+ in water (HCl)
base electrolyte that produces OH- (hydroxide) ions in water (NaOH)
salt electrolyte that produces neither H+ nor OH- in water. (NH4Cl)
non-electrolyte substance that does not ionize when put in HzO (glucose)
Carbolic acids used for cleaning Phenol & Lister
Acid-base Balance*** The Concept of pH
pH measures the degree of acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a solution
The lower the pH the more H+ (less basic)
The higher the pH the less the H+, the less acid (more basic)
acid has a high what? what is the numerical value? H+ value 0
bases have a high what? what is the numerical value? OH- value 14
pH 7 neutral. H2O.
A change of one whole number on the pH scale represents a 10 fold change in If concentration. measured in Logs.
pH= -log[H+]
pH -4 is 10x the H+ concentration of pH -3. What is pH -5 to pH -3? 100x the H+ concentation
The Central Roles of Carbon (3) carbon backbone. Always 4 bonds. can bond with other carbons to form long chains (unique*).
what type of bonds does C use? covalent
principle function is to provide energy carbohydrates (principle)
C, H, O ONLY Cn(H20)n carbohydrates (elements)
Basic carbohydrate unit Monosaccharides
2 types of Monosaccharides pentose & hexose sugars
pentose sugars (2 examples) 5*. ribose & deoxyribose
hexose sugars (3 examples) 6*. fructose, glucose (blood sugar, or dextrose) & galactose (milk sugar)
what type of sugar is sweetest fructose - hexose
disaccharides (3 examples) two sugar unit. sucrose (fructose+glucose), lactose (galactose+glucose), maltose (glucose+glucose).
hydrophobic hates water. fatty acid head of a phospholipid
hydrophilic love water. bonding portion & tail of phospholipid
polysaccharides (3 types) polymers, long chains of repeating sugar units. 1. starch 2. glycogen 3. cellulose
poly many
mer unit
starch digestible polysaccharide. storage form of glucose in plants
glycogen digestible polysaccharide. storage form of glucose in animals (liver and skeletal muscle)
cellulose polysaccharide. indigestible glucose (plant cell walls)
lipids are composed of what?. What do they tend to do in water? C, H, O (sometimes P). Insoluble tenancy in water.
lipid types (4) 1. triglycerides 2. phospholipids 3. steroids 4. prostaglandins
triglycerides lipid. storage form of energy (fat). Consist of 1 glycerol * 3 fatty acids (3 carbons).
fatty acids can be (4 types) 1. saturated 2. unsaturated 3. cis fatty acids 4. trans fatty acids
saturated triglycerides MAX H+. contains no double bonds between carbons; maximum number of hydrogens
unsaturated triglycerides NOT MAX H+. contains one or more double bonds between carbons; hydrogens can be added-hydrogenation
cis fatty acid triglycerides SAME H+! hydrogens are bonded to the double- bonded carbons on the same side of the molecule.
trans fatty acid triglycerides OPPOSITE H+! hydrogens are bonded to the double- bonded carbons on opposite side of the molecule. Bad for you.
unsaturated fats liquid, plants
saturated fats solid, animal
phospholipids lipid. components of cell membranes. Consist of 1 glycerol + *2* fatty acids + phosphate + other group.
hydrophobic tails (fatty acids) and hydrophilic heads (phosphate + other) phospholipid
steroids (5 examples) lipid. all have the cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. cholesterol, bile salts, male& female hormones, vitamin D, adrenocortical hormones
prostaglandins (PG) lipids, local hormones*. 20 carbon fatty acids with a ring structure. Act as local hormones
Proteins consist of? Basic unit? C, H, O, *N*, (some S).
basic unit of protein amino acid
how many amino acids are there? 20
amino acid bonds covalent peptide bond. Water splits off.
When 2 amino acids combine, water splits off. Therefore, this is a(n) ________________reaction. dehydration
The joining of two amino acids produces a dipeptide
The joining of three amino acids produces a tripeptide
many amino acids connected are called polypeptide
many many amino acids are called proteins
sequence of amino acids primary structure of proteins (1st). different seq= different proteins.
the primary structure forming a helix or pleated sheet secondary structure of proteins (2nd)
the 3-D structure gives a protein its FUNCTION tertiary structure of proteins (3rd). held together by H+ bonds & disulfide bridges.
disruption of the tertiary structure of a protein. Loss of function. Caused by heat or chemicals. denaturation
protein's function is defined by its shape of protein
nucleic acid consists of C, H, O, N, P
basic unit of nucleic acid nucleotide
nucleic acid types (2) RNA & DNA
AGCU, single strand RNA
AGCT, double helix DNA
what type of bonds do DNA & RNA use? H+
A+B -> C + H2O dehydration reaction
C + H20 = A + B hydrolysis reaction
containes C, H, O lipids, carbohydrates
monosaccharide types pentose & hexose
name the pentose sugars RNA & DNA
name the hexose sugars fructose, glucose, galactose
sucrose + H20 -> fructose + glucose
lactose + H2O -> galactose + glucose
Maltose + H20 -> glucose + glucose
phospholipid heads __________ water are attracted to water (love it)
phospholipid tails ___________ water hate water
polysaccharide basic unit polymer
C, H, O, N proteins
The ____ groups of one AA can combine with _____ groups of another AA to form a _______. carboxyl; amine; dipeptide
2 AA combining is a ________ reaction dehydration
C, O, H, N, P nucleic acid
In RNA, adenine bonds with uracil (A-U)
In DNA, adenine bonds with thymine (A-T)
Created by: la66