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Chapter 4 vocabulary


Acids supply an excess of H+ ions that make the water solution acidic
Adenine (A) in both DNA--oposite tymidine (T)--RNA--oposite uridine (U)
Bases supply an excess of OH- ions, making the solution basic or alkaline because many of the free H+ ions are used by the OH- ions to form water (H20)
Cholesterols lipids contained in animal cells--
Chromosome thousands of genes make up a single piece of double-stranded DNA
Codons nucleic acid letters read in triplets--each 3 letter work codes for a specific amino acid--bluprint and codes for how proteins will be organized-
Cytosine Base in DNA and RNA--always oposite guinine (G)
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA--2 strands of nucleic acid--always pair in a certain order--bases adenine and thymidine always opposedand cytosine and guanine are opposed--always = numbers of A and T and = numbers of C and G--20% C+ 20% G + 30% A + 30% T = 100%
Enzymes majority of protiens--workers of a cell--breakdown nutrients into molecules to give energy--join molecular subunits of macromolecules into complex material that a cell needs--including other protiens.
Ergosterols lipids in fungi
Gene a string of 2 letter codons, usually 300-1000 base pairs long
Guanine (G) base in DNA and RNA--always apposed to cytosine (C)
Lipids 4th type of macromolecule--small and span the membrane of every cell--majority `ontain phosphate and are called phospholipids--polar phosphate groups face the water on both sides of the membrane--nonpolar tails face each other in the middle--
Lipids 2 cell membrane has polar surfaces byt a nonpolar internal structure--nonpolar barrier keeps molecules out on the outside and in on the inside--wanted cells need to be transported by a cell-determined mechanism.
Macromolecules polymeric(many copies of a few chemical subunits) molecules--large--may be found in numbers of 1 to 100 thousand copies per cell
messanger RNA (mRNA)--DNA is initially transcribed into mRNA--actual template for protien synthesis or translation
Nonpolar Oil--no charge differential--gives microbes the ability to selectively allow desired chemicals in and unwanted ones out.
Nucleic acid the 3rd macromolecule--sugar-phosphate repeating structure--huge--millions of units long--each sugar has 1 of 4 poss. bases-4 letters--blueprint and codes for how protiens are organized
Polar water--positive charge at 1 end and negative charge at the other--all cells are bathed in water environment
Polysaccharides second type of macromolecule--sugares polymerized into long chains--serve a structural function--provide strength to the cell to keep it from breaking open
Proteins 100-600 amino acid residues--20 different amino acids linked together in a cell--specific amino acids and order determine the protein function--many function structurally in cell envelope and extracellular structures--others are transporters
Ribonucleic acid singe-stranded--sugar ribose--uridine (U) in place of thymidine--no constraints for numbers of As and Us or Cs and Gs to be equal
Sterols type of lipid useful as target for antibiotic therapy of fungi because funngal and animal lipids vary--bacteria lack sterols with one exception-hydrophobic sterols strengthen the animals membranes
Thymidine (T) base of DNA--always oposite of adenine (A)
Translation protein synthesis--mRNA is used as template
Uridine (U) --base of RNA--always oposite adenine (A)
Created by: heatherlvn