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Nutrition TTU

chapter 1

nutrition the science that studies food and how food nourishes our body and influences our health
chronic diseases diseases that come on slowly and can persist for years
wellness absence of disease, living a healthy life style
carbohydrates primary source of fuel for our body particularly our brain and during physical exercise
nutrients carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
organic contain both carbon and hydrogen, fundamental units of matter that are common to all living organisms
macronutrients the energy nutrients
kilocalories amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 degree celsius
fats type of lipids important source of energy insoluble in water
proteins contain element nitrogen, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
micronutrients vitamins and minerals need small amounts of these nutrients to support normal he alt and body functions
vitamins organic compounds that help regulate our body's functions
metabolism process where macronutrients are broken into the smaller molecules that our body can absorb and use
fat-soluble vitamins vitamins A,D,E,K stored in human body
water -soluble vitamins C,B soluble in water not stored in human body
minerals inorganic substances do not contain carbon and hydrogen
dietary refrence intakes (DRI) recommended intake values
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) represents the average daily intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life
Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) average daily nutrient intake level that meets the requirement of 97-98% of healthy individuals
Adequate intake (AI) value is a recommended average daily nutrient intake level assumed to be adequate
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult
acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) a range of macronutrient intake that provides adequate levels of essential nutrients and is associated with a reduced risk for chronic disease
National Institues of Health world's leading medical research center
Center for Disease Control and Prevention leading federal agency in U.S that protects human health and safety
healthful diet provides proper combination of energy and nutrients and is adequate, moderate, balanced, and varied
adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, and fiber needed to maintain health
moderation not to much not to little
balanced diet contains combination of foods that provide proper proportions of nutrients
variety eating different foods each day
Nutrition Facts Panel label on food packages that contain nutrient information required by FDA
percent daily values info on nutrition facts panel that identifies how much of a serving of food contributes to overall intake of nutrients listed on package
Dietary Guidelines for Americans set of principals developed to assist Americans in designing a healthful diet
nutrient density relative amount of nutrients per amount of energy for number of calories
MyPyramid graphic representation of USDA food guide
Hunger physiologic sensation that prompts us to eat
appetite psychological desire to consume specific foods
anorexia absence of appetite
hypothalamus region of brain that regulates hunger and thirst
hormone chemical messenger secreted into the blood stream by one of the many glands of the body
cell smallest unit of matter
digestion process by which food is broken down into component molecules either mechanically or chemically
absorbtion physiologic process where molecules of food are taken from gastrointestinal tract to circulation
elimination undigested portion of food and waste products are removed from the body
gastrointestinal tract long muscular tube made of several organs mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
saliva mix of water and mucus, enzymes that moistens the mouth and food
enzymes small chemicals usually proteins that act on other chemicals to speed up the bodies processes but are not changed during those processes
esophagus muscular tube of the GI tract connecting the back of the mouth to the stomach
Stomach j shaped organ where food is partially digested, churned, and stored until released into small intestine
gastric juice acidic liquid secreted within the stomach
small intestine longest portion of GI tract where most digestion and absorption takes place
pancreas gland located behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes
liver largest auxiliary organ of the GI tract and one of the most important organs of the body. produces bile and processing of nutrient rich blood from the small intestine
large intestine final organ of the GI tract
Created by: brookevaughan