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Vocabulary from Quarter 1 Week 2

Universe all of the matter, energy and space that have existed since the beginning of time. Contains stars, planets, comets, asteroids, satellites, gases and dust.
Big Bang Theory A cosmological theory that the universe originated approximately 20 billion years ago from the violent explosion.
Blue Shift If a star is moving TOWARDS the observer, the spectral lines shift toward the BLUE wavelength of light
Red Shift If a star is moving AWAY from the observer, the spectral lines shift toward the RED wavelength of light
Doppler Effect If an object is moving away from an observer, the frequency and pitch of the sound wave that is being emitted from the moving object will become lower the further it moves away. The sound waves become LONGER as the frequency decreases.
Deuterium An isotope of Hydrogen.  Since it is present in the Universe, scientists use it as proof for the Big Bang Theory
After glow commonly known as the cosmic background radiation – is the left-over heat from the fireball of the big bang in which the Universe was born 13.7 billion years ago.
Nebula cloud of dust and gases in space
Nuclear Fusion atomic combination that releases energy. converts 2 hydrogen atoms into a helium atom, and left over energy is given off in the form of light and heat. This is why the star shines
Life Cycle of a Star 1) Stars are born as nebulae. 2) Huge clouds of dust and gas collapse under gravitational forces, forming protostars. 3)These young stars undergo further collapse, forming main sequence stars.
Geocentric Earth Centered: Geo=Earth A model of the earth proposed by Ptolemy
Heliocentric Sun centered: Helio=Sun A model of the earth proposed by Copernicus
Comets astronomical object with long tail: composed of ice and dust. Sometimes called "dirty snowballs" The tail points away from the sun
Planets object in orbit round star: an astronomical object that orbits a star and does not shine with its own light, especially one of those orbiting the Sun in the solar system
Asteroid rocky object orbiting Sun: an irregularly shaped rock that orbits the Sun, mostly occurring in a belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. They range in size from the largest, with a diameter of 300 mi, down to dust particles.
Keppler's Laws 3 laws proposed by Keppler about the planets’ orbits: 1)The orbit of each planet is an ellipse (oval). 2)The sun is NOT in the center- off to the side. 3)The closer a planet is to the sun, the faster it orbits. Farther from the sun, the longer it takes.
Relative Dating Age of rock layer based on depth. Scientists can determine the age of rock by observing the order layers were formed. Age of rocks/fossils is determined by comparing its placement with fossils in other layers of rock. The deeper the rock=older the rock
Absolute Dating Age of rocks determind by measuring the amount of radioactive isotopes that remain.
Half-life time taken to lose half of radioactivity: the time a radioactive substance takes to lose half its radioactivity through decay
Gravitational Force The force that attracts a body toward the any other physical body having mass
Weight heaviness: the quality of heaviness in things, determined by their mass or quantity of matter as acted on by the force of gravity, that counteracts efforts to lift or move them
Mass physical quantity: the property of an object that is a measure of its inertia, the amount of matter it contains, and its influence in a gravitational field.
Created by: mathewsecot