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chapter 2:

water carbon

Chemical Evolution The proposition that early in earths history simple chemical compounds in the atmosphere and ocean combined to form larger complex substances.
Atomic Number The number of protons
Isotopes Forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
Mass Number The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom
Atomic Mass Unit (amu) Special unit to measure atoms
Orbitals The way elections move around
Electron Shell orbitals are grouped into levels
Valence electrons the electrons found in each valence shell
Valence The number of unpaired electrons found in a atom
Chemical Bond Strong attraction that bind atoms together
Covalent Bond The shared electrons that glue the atoms together
Molecules Substances that are held together by a coolant bond
Nonpolar covalent bond An equal sharing of electrons
Electronegativity when atoms hold electrons in covalent bonds more tightly than others
Ionic Bond The electrons in ionic bonds are completely transferred from one atom to another
Anion Negatively charged ions
Chemical reaction when one substance is combined with others or broken down into another substance
Ion an atom or molecule that carries a charge
Cation positively charged ions
Molecular Formula Indicates the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
Structural Formulas Indicates which atoms are bonded together
Mole Refers to the number 6.022x10^23
Molecular Weight The sum of the mass numbers of all atoms in a molecule
Solution A mixture of one or more substances dissolved in a liquid
Molarity The number of moles of the substance per liter of the solution
Solvent an agent for getting substances into a solution
Polar the overall distribution of charge is asymmetrical
Hydrophillic Substances that interact with water
Hydrophobic substances that do not interact with water
Cohesion Binding between like molecules
Adhesion Binnding between unlke molecules
Meniscus the concave surface that forms in a glass of water . because they experience a downward pull
Surface tension the resistance that makes water surface act as if it had an elastic membrane
specific heat the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1gram of substance by 1 degrease C
Heat of vaporization the energy required to change 1gram of a substance from liquid to gas
Hydrogen ion H+
hydroxide ion OH-
Acids substances that gives up protons during chemical reactions and raise the hydrogen ion concentration of water
Bases molecules that acquire protons during chemical reactions and that lower the hydrogen ion concentration of water
PH to express the concentration of protons in a solution with a logarithmic form
Reactant atoms shown on the left of a chemical equation
Product atoms shown on the right of a chemical equation
Chemical equalilibrium A dynamic but stable state
System A set of interacting elements
Endothermic transforming a liquid water molecule to a gaseous state
Exothermic the transformation of water vapor to a liquid water and releases heat
Energy the capacity to do work or to supply heat
Potential Energy Stored energy
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion
Thermal Energy Kinetic energy of molecular motion
Temperature How much thermal energy its molecules possess
Heat the transferd energy between two objects with different temperatures when they come in contact
first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved. cannot be created or destroyed but only transferred and transformed
Entropy the amount of disorder in a group of molecules
Second law of thermodynamics that entropy always increases in an isolated system
Exergonic when chemical reactions are spontaneous because ^G is less than zero
Endergonic when chemical reactions are nonspontaneous because ^G is greater than zero
Free Radicals the atoms from the result of energy from photons that break molecules apart by knocking electrons away from outer shells of atoms
Chemical energy The potential energy stored in chemical bonds
Organic Molecules that contain carbon
Functional groups H-, N-, and O- containing groups found in organic compounds
Created by: thomas.r