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Aqua Sci Fall Final

January 2013

What map has no distortion, but is bulky and difficult to transport? Globe
What map distorts the continents as little as possible, and has cuts are made through oceans? Homolosine Map
What map has an interrupted projection is a way of reducing the distortion. Sinusoidal Interrupted Equal-area Map
What map has projecting a spherical surface onto a cylinder Cylindrical-Projection Map
List the oceans in order from largest to smallest. Arctic, Indian, Atlantic, Pacific
The property of water which allows a paper clip or a needle to float is its surface tension
The unique properties of water are a result of hydrogen bonds
an indentation of a shoreline larger than a cove but smaller than a gulf Bay
an arm of a sea or ocean partly enclosed by land, larger than a bay Gulf
a division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by land Sea
large landmasses Continents
Cover 71% of Earth’s surface and have an average depth of 2.3 miles Ocean Basins
Covers up to 10% of the total surface area of the earth. Ice
Water's chemical and physical properties are quite ______ to isopropyl alcohol. different
Water is a _____ molecule. polar
Freshwater is _______ dense than saltwater at room temperature. less
Saltwater has a ________ boiling point than freshwater. higher
Hot water is ____ dense than cold water. less
The molecules at the surface stick more strongly to other molecules with them on the surface. Surface Tension
When a molecule of one substances attracts to a molecule of a different substance. Adhesion
The upward force that a fluid exerts on an object less dense than itself. Buoyancy
Water tends to stick firmly to itself, resisting external forces that would break these bonds. Cohesion
The ability to “climb” structures; the result of adhesion and surface tension. Capillary Action
The pressure at a given depth in a liquid is a result the weight of the liquid acting on a unit area at that depth plus any pressure acting on the surface of the liquid. Hydrostatic Pressure
Charles Darwin in the 1800s contributed to marine biology by explaining how atolls form
Aristotle during the fourth century BC contributed to marine biology by naming many aquatic organisms and recognizing that gills are the breathing apparatus of fish
Which was the first systematic effort to gather data and samples from oceans around the globe? the Challenger Expedition
Vast depression in crust and filled by ocean. Ocean Basin
Term to describe the process whereby sections of the Earth’s lithosphere move. Plate Tectonics
Any small body of land, regardless of origin or composition that is surrounded by water. Island
Term for a circular reef that is located above sea level. Atoll
A science that deals with the oceans and includes the delimitation of their extent and depth, the physics and chemistry of their waters, marine biology, and the exploitation of their resources. Oceanography
The measurement of water depth relative to sea level. Bathymetry
What are isolated volcanic mountains scattered along the ocean floor? Seamounts
How are the volcanic Islands in the Hawaiian Island chain formed? hot spots
What are deep depressions in the sea floor that are particularly common in the Pacific Ocean? Trenches
This occurs when hot, molten mantle material moves up to the earth’s surface and new crust is added to the oceanic crust as the mid-ocean ridge is pushed upward. sea-floor spreading

What are the two most abundant ions in sea water? Sodium and calcium
The typical salinity of sea water is 35__ (‰)? ppt
What is the total amount of salt dissolved in sea water? Salinity
How does evaporation affect salinity? increases
What is the distance between the crest and the trough? Wave height
What causes waves? wind
What is the span of open water over which the wind blows? Fetch
True or False. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the earth. True
True or False. Tides are caused by the rotations of the earth, moon, and sun. True
True or False. Tides alternately expose and submerge the coastline. True
True or False. The earth rotates through the tidal bulges. True
What type of tides have two high and two low tides a day? Semidiurnal tides
What uses pulses of radio waves to image underwater features (sound navigation ranging)? Sonar
What is the difference in height between a high tide and the next low tide? Tidal range
What does SCUBA stand for? Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
An object moving a greater distance would experience ___________ deflection. greater
The temperature of the ocean does not fluctuate as dramatically as the temperature of the ____. land
Regions along the coast generally experience more __________ temperatures in summer and winter. moderate
Cooler air can hold _______ moisture than warmer air. less
The storminess around the ICZ is an example of abundant water and ____ temperatures increasing the amount of water that is evaporated into the atmosphere (and subsequently condensed), producing high energy in the atmosphere. higher
A negative-phase NAO occurs when the pressure difference is ____ than normal and a positive-phase NAO occurs when the pressure difference is greater than normal. less
As the ____ _____ ocean current and corresponding westerly winds move across the North Atlantic they bring warm air and moisture to the United Kingdom, moderating the temperature of the region. Gulf Stream
The Category 5 hurricanes ___________ cause the most damage. sometimes
___________ that stay over the ocean for longer periods of time always become stronger storms that are more devastating when they hit land. Hurricanes
Atlantic hurricanes follow approximately the same path, moving _______ northwest before turning north northeast. west
Hurricanes form over warm oceans in tropical areas where there is _____ wind shear. low
El Niño or La Niña. Increased Atlantic hurricane activity (more active season). La Niña
El Niño or La Niña. No upwelling along the coast of South America. El Niño
El Niño or La Niña. Cooler than normal sea surface temperatures in the Pacific. La Niña
El Niño or La Niña. Warmer than normal sea surface temperatures in the Pacific. El Niño
the motion of the water Currents
Aided by the Coriolis Effect & wind patterns that blow surface currents away from the shore, surface water along coastlines is moved away from the land. As surface water is pushed away from shore, it is replaced by water that wells up from below. Upwelling
The mechanism for atmospheric circulation and the movement of air and water from one place on Earth to another. Convection
low pressure systems that have thunderstorm activity and rotate counterclockwise. Tropical Cyclone
This forms a doughnut shaped wall of intense activity surrounding the center of the storm. Eye Wall
The calm area at the very center of the hurricane. Eye
A discrete tropical weather system of apparently organized convection originating in the tropics or subtropics and maintaining its identity for 24 hours or more. tropical disturbance
winds of 38 mph or less is Tropical Depression
winds reach 39-73 mph Tropical Storm
winds exceed 74 mph Category 1 Hurricane
winds exceed 156 mph Category 5 Hurricane
In the Atlantic Ocean, hurricanes form off the coast of? Africa
What occurs as a result of deflection of the earth's winds and ocean currents caused by the earth's rotation? Coriolis effect
The density of sea water
increases as water temperature __________ and salinity increases. decreases
Theses are pushed on the sea surface by the wind, creating currents and are bent by the Coriolis effect. Winds

Oceans provide the warm, ______ air that drives hurricane formation. moist
What is the largest source of water for the water cycle? oceans
What ocean currents are driven by the wind? surface

What is the energy source that drives atmospheric circulation and the movement of masses of air and water from one place on Earth to another? sun
What is is the deep-water circulation of the oceans that involves sinking cold, salty water at the poles? Thermohaline circulation
A community or communities in a large area, together with their physical environment. ecosystem
The natural environment where an organism lives. habitat
The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. ecology
A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area. population
All the different populations of organisms that live in the same place. community
What are factors that may limit how populations grow over time (such as competition for space, predation, diseases) called? biotic factors
The role of a species in its community. ecological niche
The conversion of carbon dioxide into organic matter by autotrophs. primary production
The shallowest part of the continental shelf that is exposed to air at low tides (area between high and low tide). intertidal zone
What zone is the shallowest vertical zone in the pelagic ocean, has a depth that depends on water clarity, and receives plenty of light for photosynthesis. epipelagic zone
Organisms that live in the water column. pelagic
What zone of the pelagic ocean has the highest productivity? Euphotic
What organic molecules store energy, provide insulation, and assist in buoyancy? lipids
Marine organisms whose internal salt concentration varies with that of their environment are examples of osmoconformers
Animals that keep their internal temperature is more or less constant Endotherms
What are the two dominant modes of reproduction? sexual and asexual
organisms that drift with the currents plankton
organisms that are strong swimmers nekton
organisms that live on the bottom benthos
Photosynthetic organisms that passively float in the water column and are responsible for primary production Phytoplankton
The detritus in sea water includes dead organic matter
What is the ultimate fate of energy in an ecosystem? lost as heat
In an ecosystem, what flows from organism to organism and from the abiotic to the biotic parts of the ecosystem? materials
lack a backbone invertebrate
have more than one cell multicellular
have a backbone vertebrates
use sunlight to make glucose autotrophs
most consume food for energy heterotrophs
Invertebrates make up _____ than 95% of all species of animals. more
What uses filtering structures to sweep up food particles, pumps water through their bodies to obtain food particles, eats food particles suspended in water filter feeders
An early stage of development of an organism, typically part of the plankton larva
The release of gametes (sperm and eggs) into the water is called spawning
Organisms that live attached to the bottom are ________. sessile
Organisms that move around on the bottom are _________. mobile
A dramatic change in life style from the larval to adult stages of an organism
Cells with flagella that pump water into a sponge choanocytes
calcareous structures for support spicules
opening through which water leaves osculum
openings through which water enters ostia
spongy fibers for support spongin
What do sponges use calcareous spicules, siliceous spicules, sponging for structural ________. support
These are used by cniderians for capturing prey, have threads that may be armed with spines and may contain toxins nemoatocysts
Algae that lives inside the tissue of coral polyps (symbiotic/mutualistic relationship) Zooxanthellae
Invertebrate filter feeders that use a set of ciliated tentacles (called lophophores) to catch food Bryozoans
_________ organisms use a enzyme-catalized reaction to produce light (examples: ctenophores & dinoflagellates) Bioluminescent
are eight rows of long cilia are fused at the base and used for locomotion in ctenophores ciliary combs
Organisms that have radial symmetry and use tentacles with sticky cells called colloblasts to capture food (comb jellies) Ctenophores
Organisms that have bilateral symmetry, a complete digestive tract, organs and organ systems flatworms
Organisms that have an organ system level of organization, a hydrostatic skeleton, and are bilaterally symmetrical (include polychaetes) Segmented worms
What is the rasping tongue-like organ used for feeding? Radula
The state shell of Texas is the _______________. Lightening Whelk
typically have coiled shells but some lack shells, largest class of mollusks gastropods
Mollusk filter feeders with a 2-part shell and a hatchet-shaped foot for burrowing. Bivalves
Mollusks that have tentacles, arms and a highly developed brain. cephalopods
Mollusks that have eight overlapping plates chitons
Organisms that live in or on the bottom (crabs & worms) benthos
Strong-swimming animals that live in the open water (Sharks & Tuna ) nekton
Small floating or feebly-swimming organisms in the water plankton
Those organisms that float on the surface of the water (By-the-wind Sailor & Portuguese Man-of-war ) neuston
the entire area of the open water; organisms are those that live in the open sea away from the bottom. Pelagic
can refer to the organisms and the zones of the sea bottom Benthic
the water mass that overlies the continental shelf. Neritic
part of the pelagic realm that is lighted, zone of primary production (epipelagic) Photic
the benthic zone underlying the neritic pelagic zone on the continental shelf. Sublittoral
shore area lying between the extremes of high and low tide (littoral) Intertidal
Created by: MrsHeist