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Weather and Climate Chapters 1 & 2

weather The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
atmosphere The layer of gases that surrounds Earth.
ozone A form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two.
water vapor Water in the form of gas.
pollutants Harmful substances in the air, water, or soil.
density The amount of mass of a substance to a given volume.
pressure The force pushing on an area or surface.
air pressure A force that is the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area.
barometer An instrument used to measure changes in air pressure.
mercury barometer An instrument that measures changes in air pressure, consisting of a glass tube partially filled with mercury, with its open end resting in a dish of mercury. Air pressure pushing on the mercury in the dish forces the mercury in the tube to be higher.
aneroid barometer An instrument that measures changes in air pressure without using a liquid. Changes in the shape of an airtight metal box cause a needle on the barometer dial to move.
condensation The process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water.
dew point The temperature at which condensation begins.
altitude Elevation above sea level.
troposphere The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, where weather occurs.
stratosphere The second-lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere; the ozone layer is located in the upper stratosphere.
mesosphere The middle layer of Earth's atmosphere; the layer in which most meteoroids burn up.
thermosphere The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere.
electromagnetic wave A form of energy that can travel through space.
radiation The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
greenhouse effect The process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases that form a "blanket" around Earth.
thermal energy The energy of motion in the molecules of a substance.
heat The energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one.
conduction The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
precipitation Any form of water that falls from cluds and reaches Earth's surface.
rain gauge An instrument used to measure the amount of precipitation, consisting of an open-ended can topped by a collecting funnel and having a collecting tube and measuring scale inside.
droughts Long periods of low precipitation.
convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.
wind The horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
anemometer An instrument used to measure wind speed.
wind-chill factor Increased cooling caused by the wind.
local winds Winds that blow over short distances.
global winds Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances.
Coriolis effect The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
latitude The distance from the equator, measured in degrees.
jet streams Bands of high-speed winds about 10 kilometers above Earth's surface.
evaporation The process by which water molecules in liquid water escape into the air as water vapor.
humidity A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
relative humidity The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold at that temperature.
psychrometer An instrument used to measure relative humidity, consisting of a wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb thermometer.
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Created by: catrin013