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PSY 100 Exam 4

For UWL PSY 100 4th Unit

William James and Carl Lange Theory of Emotion Feel emotion after we notice physiological responses
Walter Cannon and Philip Bard Theory of Emotion Feel emotion at the same time that our bodies respond
Schachter-Singer two factor theory of emotion There are two components of emotion, physical arousal and cognitive label
Emotional Physiological Activity is controlled by... the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Which three emotions produce similar physiological responses but are felt differently by those experiencing them? Fear, anger, sexual arousal
Differences in emotions physiologically Different brain pathways are used, hormones are secreted
Spillover Arousla response to one event spills over into our response to the following event
Causes emotional responses to be immediate Sensory input goes directly to amygdala via the thalamus, bypassing the cortex
Nonverbal clues are better sensed by... women
Emotions common to every culture happiness and fear
How do facial expressions affect emotion Amplify emotion and signal the body to respond accordingly
Adaptive emotion, can be traumatic, biologically predisposed to some and learned through others fear
Caused by frustrating or insulting, especially when willful, unjustified, avoidable. Anger
Expressing anger causes... more anger
Adaption level phenomenon and relative deprivation principle affect happiness by... limiting most happiness (or lack thereof) to the day of occurrence
Between normality and abnormality... arbitrary line, depending on how atypical, disturbing, unjustifiable behavior is
Biopsychosocial perspective... Disorders are influenced by genetic predisposition, physiological states, psychological dynamics, social circumstances
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) is... naming and describing disorders in treatment and research, health insurance requires DSM-IV diagnoses
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder No clear reason feel persistently and uncontrollably tense and uneasy, periodic episodes of intense dread
Phobias Irrational fear of a specific object or situation, can be disruptive and incapacitating
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistent and repetitive thoughts and actions characterize OCD - so persistent that they interfere with daily living and cause distress
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Traumatic events can lead to this disorder, symptoms are four or more weeks of memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, sleep problems
Explaining Anxiety Disorders Learning perspective - fear conditioning, stimulus generalization, reinforcement, observation. Biological - evolutionary, genetic, physiological influences
Major Depressive Disorder weeks or months into deep unhappiness, lethargy, feelings of worthlessness for no reason
Bipolar disorder Person alternates between hopelessness and lethargy, hyperactive and wildly optimistic mania
Explaining Mood Disorders Genetic predispositions and neurotransmitter abnormalities, vs self0defeating beliefs, leanred helplessness, negative attributions
Schizophrenia symptoms Disorganized thinking (nonsensical talk, delusions), disturbed perceptions (hallucinations), inappropriate emotions and actions
Subtypes of Schizophrenia Emerges gradually from chronic social inadequacy (outlook is dim) or suddenly in reaction to stress (recovery is more likely)
Understanding Schizophrenia Certain forms linked to brain abnormalities (enlarged, fluid-filled cavities or incrased dopamine receptors). Twin and adoption studies point to genetic predisposition
Antisocial Personality Disorder Enduring, maladaptive patterns of behavior that impairs social functioning. Most troubling is remorseless and fearless antisocial personality. (Typically males who display lack of conscience before age 15) - can be violent or charming con artist
Understanding antisocial personality disorder Reduced activity in frontal lobe, more sensitive to maltreatment as children
Rates of Psychological Disorders 1/7 americans have experienced a clinically significant psychological disorder in the prior year (most phobic disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence [5:1 men:women], mood disorder [2:1 women:men]), poverty is predictor (or result)
Psychoanalysis Try to help people gain insight into the unconscious origins of the disorder, and to work through feelings. Free association, dream analysis, and interpret resistance. Criticized for assuming repression, cost, time.
Humanistic Therapies Focus on clients' current conscious feelings, taking responsibility for growth. Carl Rogers - active listening.
Behavior Therapies Attempt to modify the problem behaviors, thus may countercondition through exposure therapies or aversive condition. May apply operant conditioning.
Cognitive Therapies Aaron Beck - change self-defeating thinking
Drug Therapies Most widely used biomedical therapy - antipsychotic, antianxiety, antidepressant drugs - most are ~effect as placebo, have side effects
Brain Stimulation Brief electric current is sent through brain of patient - effective, last resort treatment with severe depression.
Psychosurgery Very last resort - lobotomy
Attributing Behavior We explain people's behavior by attributing it to dispositions or situations, underestimate the situation.
Conformity and Obedience Likely to adjust judgements towars group standard to gain social approval or because we trust others' information
Group Influence Group experiences that make people feel anonymous make them less self-aware and self-restrained (deindividualization).
Groupthink Tendency for harmony-seeking pgroups to make unrealistic decisions after suppressing dissenting information
Prejudice Those with superiority attempt to justify status quo, causes scapegoats for frustration
Aggression Product of nature and nurture, certain areas of brain activate/inhibit aggression.
Conflict We see others as untrustworthy and evil intentioned, ourselves as moral (both sides do this)
Attraction Proximity, physical attractiveness, similarity of attitudes and interest = attraction++
Altruism Bystander effect - helpful acts = ++good feelings, minimize costs
Peacemaking Enemies become friends when circumstances favor cooperation to achieve superordinate goals
Created by: 1405321673